Doc dissolved organic carbon

Dark Theme Readability Issues

2023.06.06 18:30 Samsonly Dark Theme Readability Issues

For work, I coordinate a team of artists that travel to various sites for events, and I use a Google Sheets doc as a base location for all of the information they need at each visit (location, contact, links to necessary files, extra notes, etc.). This works out pretty well, because it is something the team can easily use from their phone (without having to navigate the clunky CRM we use internally), and it also allows me to update the information if anything changes (which is almost every day), which is something an email or pdf would not allow.
The problem is, part of my process has always been to highlight any sections that need to be double checked or confirmed YELLOW. This was never a problem beforehand, but starting this group of artists, I have multiple people who use Dark Theme on their phones (something I actually also do, but I only use this particular doc on my computer), and Dark theme automatically keeps the YELLOW highlighted cells, but converts the traditionally BLACK text to WHITE text, making it 100% unreadable in the highlighted sections without swapping back to Light Theme.
Is there any solution on my end for preventing it from changing the font color in a cell that is filled with color?
I am aware of the following solutions (with reasons why they are not true solutions):

Ideally, I'd like a solution with the following parameters) either from internal settings, or even with a Google Script if necessary):

Anyone have any solutions to this? I'm secretly hoping I have just overlooked some really easy solution that will take less time to implement than it did to type this post up; however, I am pessimistically prepared for the ole "Google decided not to include this incredibly basic and essential feature because they just didn't consider the need and almost never implement minor features in later updates" response.
Thanks in advance regardless...
submitted by Samsonly to googlesheets [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 18:09 TRGNG Kane - A place in the stars

Kane - A place in the stars

A beautiful view
Kane is a rocky planet made primarily of Carbon-Sulphide and Silicate compounds. Its atmosphere is rich in Nitrogen and Hydrogen, the latter being of biological origin. The planet orbits a K-type star similar to 61 Cygni A, at a distance of 0.87 AU, has an axial inclination of 36.87° that is held stable by its two moons. A surface pressure of 4 ATM, a mass of 10% and a radius 8% greater than that of the Earth. Its atmosphere is made up of 63.7% Nitrogen, 32% Hydrogen, 0.9% Carbon Dioxide, 0.7% Argon, 0.2% Tetrahydrothiophene Vapor, 0.1% Methane and the remaining 2.2% are traces of other materials. Its surface has an ocean of Tetrahydrothiophene that covers 75% of its surface, and the mainland is made up mainly of Silicates and Carbons, with sulphide minerals. The age of the planet is around 5,200 million years, its average temperature is 32°C, and it has dry ice caps, the only ones that remain permanently do so in the great mountains and the coldest and most remote regions of the poles.
In the distant past the atmosphere was very dynamic and reactive, this allowed the appearance of an ocean of Tetrahydrothiophene on its surface, the ocean would have allowed the dissolution of carbon sulfides in it, this combined with its environment rich in carbon and sulfur compounds, made abiotic reactions took place that allowed the formation of carbon-sulfur biomolecules such as thiols, sulfones, sulfoxides, etc. Thiols play an important role in the stability and metabolism of biomolecules, since they are involved in the formation of disulfide bridges that confer the stability of proteins, amino acids, and enzymes. Sulfides also play an important role, since they are key components in energy storage molecules, such as adenosine triphosphates, in addition to having adaptations in their structures and bonds to function efficiently in their environment, this allowed them to adapt to their environment and resist changes in it, they began to form covalent and non-covalent bonds with the sulfur in their solvent, this would allow them to react selectively with the molecules there, over time they began to develop more specialized and complex enzymes to take advantage of Tetrahydrothiophene as a source of energy in its metabolic processes, and it began to be used for oxidation reactions but above all for reduction in the sulfur that makes it up to use it energetically, in addition to detoxification mechanisms using enzymes that metabolize tetrahydrothiophene, the carbon-sulphide bonds were getting stronger and began to adapt three-dimensional structures in their molecular structure to be able to adapt them even more to tetrahydrothiophene and extend their useful life. The adaptation of a three-dimensional molecular structure allowed them to form more complex structures known as XNA (Xenonucleic Acid), the column would be made from sulfur glucose and phosphodiester, while the base pairs would be made from compounds called Sulfurin, Sulfatin, Sulfucytosine and Sulfothymine that would be analogous to DNA compounds. When this happened, the first self-replicating biomolecules appeared. Replication consists of the separation of the strands of the molecule and the synthesis of new complementary strands using carbon-sulfur bases. These primitive self-replicating biomolecules would have easily broken down as they replicated, however the new biomolecules would have begun to adapt specialized enzymes to correct the errors of their predecessors in order to have more specialized offspring, this allowed to create stronger bonds capable of resisting the degradation and repair errors in your sequences. This acid has a double-stranded structure, where the nucleotide bases are paired by hydrogen bonds, it has specialized proteins and enzymes that act on its structure and allow it to remain stable in its environment, it has the ability to encode the genetic information necessary for the protein synthesis and the transmission of hereditary characteristics, as well as being involved in transcription processes. As a byproduct of their nitrogen-hydrogen metabolism, they began to produce ammonia, but instead of reducing it, they began to use it directly, for more efficient metabolic reactions, such as the synthesis of amino acids, proteins, and nucleotides. That was not the only new adaptation, but rather they would have also started to use it to form amides by reacting with carbon dioxide, and finally they would have integrated it into their structure to form complex biopolymers, finally the enzymes would have catalyzed thioester fatty acids (CS) and thiol alcohol (CSH) to form thiol phospholipids, these would be stronger and less reactive than conventional phospholipids, so they are more rigid and stable. Regarding their structure, they would have a polar head that would contain the phosphate group and a tail made up of carbon-sulfide chains, they would have greater resistance to extreme conditions such as high temperatures and chemically aggressive environments, in addition to having greater resistance to oxidation. Finally these would have joined amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids to form cell nuclei that would be covered by a membrane, these cells would be able to self-replicate and begin to develop on their own until they formed organisms. And it is here where LUCA makes its first appearance, LUCA was a prokaryotic bacterium and it gave rise to the Ammonibacteria, these would have enzymes and specialized proteins that would allow them to capture and reduce ammonia from the environment, the ammonia would break down in the cell through the dehydrogenase enzymes, the ammonia would be oxidized, releasing electrons and protons in the process, these would be used to produce hydrogen molecules, nitrogen would be released into the environment, thus enriching the atmosphere. The hydrogen would be processed in the cell converting it into usable energy which would be transported through the cell generating different reactions that would favor the cell itself. Other bacteria such as Hidrobacter would begin to assimilate Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide to reduce it to free hydrogen, and integrating carbon into their cell structure, this would lay the foundations of the modern Kanian atmosphere. With the passing of millions of years, the atmosphere began to be enriched to a great extent with nitrogen, and partially with hydrogen, this on the one hand brought benefits, with nitrogen the atmosphere was less hostile and made it more suitable for breathing, in addition to that reduced greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, but on the other hand, the atmosphere began to be enriched with hydrogen and although there were species that used it as an energy source, the truth is that its use was not as widespread as it is today , the atmosphere began to fill excessively with hydrogen, until it reached a critical threshold and was present in the atmosphere in a significant way. This had important consequences for life at the time, since hydrogen was highly reactive and toxic to most forms of life that existed at the time. And so the first great mass extinction in Kane's history occurred. Hydrogen completely changed the geological structure and weathering of the planet, changing the way in which the crust is modified, marking a before and after in the history of the planet. After the chaos, finally the surviving bacteria such as Amonibacter, Hidrobacter and Hidrotrobacter would end up adapting to the hydrogen-rich environment, Hidrotrobacter would end up diverging to form the Protoacras, Protoacra was a type of flagellated prokaryotic bacterium adapted to be able to take advantage of hydrogen to the greatest extent that If possible, these bacteria would end up spreading throughout the world just like their predecessors, Protoacra became a very successful species by the standards of its time, it would end up diverging to form two of the three Eukaryotic domains on the planet, animals and mycelia. The metabolic system of these bacteria would be very similar to that of their predecessors, assimilating hydrogen and leaving carbon monoxide as a byproduct, these would be used by Hidrobacter and Amonibacter to produce glucose and releasing nitrogen and hydrogen as a byproduct, finally creating a stable system. Hidrobacter and Amonibacter would end up generating bacterial crossbreeding between them, giving rise to the third Eukaryotic domain, the Hydrozoans, they would end up adapting Photosynthesis and Chemosynthesis as an essential part of their metabolism, since they absorbed carbon monoxide and used the energy of their star to reduce it into hydrogen and glucose, later the flagellated Eukaryotes would carry these elements through the food chain. However, given that solar energy is more limited on this planet, they could not form organisms with a high level of complexity, however they did adapt black pigments in order to get the most out of the energy that was possible. The animal Eukaryotes for their part began to develop exponentially, adapting more effective methods of locomotion, and the first eyes on evolutionary history, this proved to be a huge leap in evolution. Although the mycelia did not have so many adaptations, they did manage to achieve very effective methods to obtain food in their environment. They were becoming more complex due to the availability of Hydrogen and its increasingly efficient methods to take advantage of it, until eventually reaching the current level after the mass extinctions.
submitted by TRGNG to SpeculativeEvolution [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 18:08 lil-puddin-tater Follow-Up Post + Timeline + Me and Doc being puzzled by results
My original post is attached above if you would like to reference it^^^

Hi again,
25yro female, 5'3", currently 190lbs. Caucasian. I take 40mg of Prozac. Diagnosed Autism Spectrum Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Not pregnant. Don't really drink ever, not a smoker. No known medical conditions, just speculations all around. I have made a little bit of progress with my medical journey which I will try to explain the best I can.
Been dealing with gradually worsening symptoms for ages. Mainly extreme fatigue, severe anxiety, heart palpitations, abdominal pain, gastro problems, migraines/headaches, pain all over, chest tightness, severe bloating, constant weight gain despite active lifestyle, frequent infections, etc etc etc... Here is my timeline.
At the beginning of May I finally scheduled a general wellness exam with a new primary care. I put it off because of stress, finances, my own dismissiveness, doctor's dismissiveness in the past, etc. We were steady again so I thought it was time to address some things in my body.
May 10th- I went in for bloodwork. I fasted. It was a general panel where most of it was fairly "normal" (some blood stuff on the higher end of normal such as platelets, MCV, MCH, neutrophils, eosinophils, etc. I would like to note that any bloodwork I have had in the past year has had random elevated or low numbers. My RBC has seemed kind of on the lower end as of recently but I think it was normal enough for this new doctor). My glucose, Chloride, Alkaline Phosphatase, and Triglycerides were all high. T3 was a little low but she wasn't worried about it.
May 18th- I went in for my wellness exam and we went over my bloodwork. She seemed a bit concerned about my symptoms and wanted to test a bit further. I also had a fair amount of abdominal pain when she pushed on my stomach. We threw out a few words: Cushings, sleep apnea, maybe some kind of intolerance, gallstones, rheumetoid arthiritis, etc. She ordered a few tests for me. I also did a chest x ray that was "fine" according to her.
May 27-May 29th- I did 4 different 24 hour urine tests (2 could be combined so it was more like 3) over the span of a few days. They were: 5-HIAA Quant, Catecholamines, Cortisol, and Metaphrines. I was very very careful with how I collected these because I wanted it to be accurate.
May 30th- I turned in my urine and did another round of bloodwork in the form of just a comprehensive Metabolic Panel. I fasted longer for this one and ate very very clean for 2 days. This time we found that my glucose had gone down, but my Alkaline Phosphotase was still high. My carbon dioxide read a bit low and my calcium seemed to be steadily going down. We also discovered that I was extremely Vitamin D deficient and well on my way to B12 deficiency. This puzzled my doctor a lot, as I am frequently in the sun and the b12 does not match up with my diet. My C-Reactive Protein and my ESR were also pretty high
June 2nd- Followed up with Dr. and we went over all this bloodwork. She seemed a bit puzzled by the bloodwork, but it was obvious I was inflamed, for some reason. We also went over one of the urine tests- 5-HIAA was pretty low (which makes sense, I do have depression) and she said I definitely do not have Carcinoid Syndrome haha. The catecholamines, cortisol, and metanephrines were still pending. She gave me a B12 shot, ordered some vitamins, and ordered another blood test. This one would be for Creatine Phosphokinase and Rheumatoid Factor. She wanted me to consider: a sleep study, pulmonary function test, and possibly try an elimination diet. Those may be further down the line. We also went ahead and scheduled an Abdominal Ultrasound.
June 5th- I went in for my ultrasound. I did fast for it. My results on MyChart showed liver, gallbladder, and kidneys as normal. My pancreas and proximal abdominal aorta were completely obscured by bowel gas. My spleen was enlarged. (This made a lot of sense to me. That area is constantly in pain. It makes me feel like my organs are too big for my ribcage). No one ever called to follow up. Later in the day, I missed a call from my doctor. In her voicemail, she did not mention the ultrasound but instead went over the results of the other 3 urine tests. She seemed extremely confused and admitted that she had no answers but was going to consult with others. To my surprise, my cortisol was very low (1 ug/24hr). Also, both my Normetanephrine and my Metanephrine were extremely low. My doc has no idea what this means. But I am so sure I collected everything correctly...
Today is June 6th and I called my doctor back. She was extremely busy so we couldn't talk long. Basically all she said was "I still dont have any answers for you but I am going to try to consult with others sometime today. Also your ultrasound looked fine." I was a little confused. I know my ultrasound is mostly fine, but my spleen in enlarged? And all these labs are strange? I don't know, I just feel like everything should be taken into account. I am thoroughly confused. I am scared of being dismissed. I know that something is wrong and that I am in pain and too tired to do anything.
I am thankful my doctor has been this thorough. I just want to know what this means. Everything is so vague. I am not scared of diagnosis, I am scared of not knowing or being brushed off. Just wanna get to the bottom of this. Any thoughts on my situation are welcome, just please be kind.
submitted by lil-puddin-tater to AskDocs [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 18:06 burn3R_1984 Reestablishing a research career

TLDR: is it possible to reestablish a research career after major life events?
I was a long haul post-doc. I actually enjoyed it to some extent. I got a lot of papers out the door, a couple patents and a book chapter. Plus my PhD work, I have over 30 publications. During my post-doc I won multiple awards and built a robust research program. I was becoming known within my field. Despite this productivity, my PI did not want me moving on to my own independent role. He outright blocked me anytime I applied for a faculty job. He would get very angry any time I brought up the idea. Often would cite I was to take over his lab when he retired (which is still 7-10yrs out).
One time, i was so frustrated with the stagnation of my career despite being productive that I applied for a job in secret.
A few weeks later I got “invited” to an investor conference by a higher up in the University. When the conference was over, the higher up drove me back to campus. Before saying our goodbyes, he stopped the car an threatened me. Said I need to apologize to my PI and that I have plenty of time to work for this outside organization that I told no one I applied to.
I was scared. I apologized and for two more years I worked with the same PI. During this time my mental health started deteriorating, I started to feel more like Jesse at the end of breaking bad. Then came the pandemic.
My spouse at the time couldn’t take the stress of lockdowns and I certainly wasn’t helpful given my work life. What I didn’t expect was that my spouse started an affair and then became violent when I confronted them about the affair.
It was too much. My research ground to a halt and I took a leave of absence to get away from my spouse during the divorce. I moved across the country and have been on a “sabbatical” of sorts. During this leave, my PI grew furious with me. Was screaming at me constantly and eventually the University HR department stepped in to give me space. They offered me my job back at the end of my leave but I just couldn’t do it.
I was in intense trauma based therapy for nearly 2yrs. I finally feel like myself again and eager to reestablish my career.
I am wondering if this is even possible? On one hand, I miss my research, I miss training students. On the other hand, I am reluctant to re-enter a community where taking people out in vans and threatening them is considered “normal”.
I have a solid publication record, I have great teaching scores and used my time off to refine my research ideas/next moves. I just don’t know if it is worth the stress or even possible without a recommendation from former PI. My former PI and I haven’t spoken since 2021.
submitted by burn3R_1984 to AskAcademia [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 17:21 megamorphg "Your session expired" error during cross-site download

I'm getting this error in both Firefox (with tracking protection disabled and Adblock disabled) and Edge (with no plugins)...
But not getting this in incognito in Firefox.
It's weird that turning off tracker blocking and Adblock in both the origin site ( and destination site ( still didn't work. Sounds like an add-on issue but the fact that the issue still happens in Edge without add-ons suggests it isn't related to add-ons...
Here's the console log:
submitted by megamorphg to firefox [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 17:00 AutoModerator New to Reddit? Come and talk to us!

New-Redditor's lounge!

This weekly post is an opportunity for new users to say hello in comments - & please let us how you found yourself here. Regulars here are absolutely encouraged and very welcome to join in too!
Getting started on Reddit is hard. We know it is; We've been there and gone through these same frustrations. Please believe us when we say IT’S NOT PERSONAL. It may well feel like it is, but honestly, it isn’t. What it is, however, is a lack of Karma. Karma is an indicator of how much someone has contributed to Reddit in a positive manner. So, let’s do just that by getting to know each other!
This is a post to help genuine new users build up quality Karma in a safe environment.
Please do:
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Please think first before asking questions about “how to do stuff on Reddit”
You need Post Karma, so the ideal opportunity to start is by asking any questions about Redditing in your own new, dedicated Post in this Subreddit (only one post per 72 hours please, but make as many comments or questions in that post as you need). This sub is full of awesome people who are willing to help with specific problems, and we’d like to keep this post primarily for chat.
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submitted by AutoModerator to NewToReddit [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 16:30 golfrough99 Brutal honesty from Viktor.

Brutal honesty from Viktor.
Brutal honesty from Viktor.
submitted by golfrough99 to u/golfrough99 [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 16:14 cowriterm AQA AS CHEMISTRY Paper 2 Organic and Physical Chemistry Tuesday 23 May 2023

AQA AS CHEMISTRY Paper 2 Organic and Physical Chemistry Tuesday 23 May 2023
use this link to download...
submitted by cowriterm to u/cowriterm [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 16:12 rowancheung Carbon Health's ai tool cuts doctors workload

Carbon Health Technologies, a clinic chain, has unveiled a groundbreaking tool. It utilizes AI to generate medical records, freeing doctors to focus on patient care rather than administrative tasks by:
  1. Recording and transcribing patient appointments using Amazon Transcribe Medical.
  2. Combining the transcript with other information, like lab results and notes from the doctor, to generate a summary of the patient’s visit.
  3. Create instructions based on the summary, using GPT-4 for patient care and codes for diagnoses and billing.Almost 90% of submitted transcripts require no editing from the healthcare provider. So while we may not have robot doctors just yet, AI is already making an impact in the doctor’s office.
Almost 90% of submitted transcripts require no editing from the healthcare provider. So while we may not have robot doctors just yet, AI is already making an impact in the doctor’s office.
The full breakdown went live this morning right here, but all points are included below for Reddit discussion as well.
what happened?
Carbon Health has launched an AI-enabled notes assistant in its Electronic Health Records (EHR) platform. The tool records and transcribes patient appointments, generates a summary, and creates instructions for patient care and billing codes, all within less than four minutes. This allows providers to focus more on patient care. The AI-generated records are found to be more detailed and efficient than traditional manual records.
why is this important?
  1. Efficiency: The AI-enabled EHR significantly reduces the time taken to generate a complete medical chart, from an average of 16 minutes manually to less than 4 minutes. This efficiency is crucial in healthcare settings where time is often of the essence.
  2. Accuracy: The system has shown high accuracy, with 88% of the AI-generated text accepted by the provider without edits, minimizing the risk of errors that can occur with manual data entry.
  3. Focus on Patient Care: By automating the administrative task of charting, doctors can spend more time focusing on patient care, enhancing the quality of healthcare services.
  4. Scalability: Given that this is an AI-based system, it can potentially be scaled up across other healthcare settings, leading to industry-wide improvements in healthcare delivery.
  5. Data richness: AI-generated charts are reported to be 2.5 times more detailed than manual ones, potentially leading to more comprehensive and informed healthcare decisions.
here are some implications to think about...
P.S. If you like this kind of analysis, there's more in this free newsletter that tracks the biggest issues and implications of generative AI tech. It helps you stay up-to-date in the time it takes to have your morning coffee.
submitted by rowancheung to OpenAI [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 16:12 rowancheung Carbon Health's ai tool cuts doctors workload

Carbon Health Technologies, a clinic chain, has unveiled a groundbreaking tool. It utilizes AI to generate medical records, freeing doctors to focus on patient care rather than administrative tasks by:
  1. Recording and transcribing patient appointments using Amazon Transcribe Medical.
  2. Combining the transcript with other information, like lab results and notes from the doctor, to generate a summary of the patient’s visit.
  3. Create instructions based on the summary, using GPT-4 for patient care and codes for diagnoses and billing.Almost 90% of submitted transcripts require no editing from the healthcare provider. So while we may not have robot doctors just yet, AI is already making an impact in the doctor’s office.
Almost 90% of submitted transcripts require no editing from the healthcare provider. So while we may not have robot doctors just yet, AI is already making an impact in the doctor’s office.
The full breakdown went live this morning right here, but all points are included below for Reddit discussion as well.
what happened?
Carbon Health has launched an AI-enabled notes assistant in its Electronic Health Records (EHR) platform. The tool records and transcribes patient appointments, generates a summary, and creates instructions for patient care and billing codes, all within less than four minutes. This allows providers to focus more on patient care. The AI-generated records are found to be more detailed and efficient than traditional manual records.
why is this important?
  1. Efficiency: The AI-enabled EHR significantly reduces the time taken to generate a complete medical chart, from an average of 16 minutes manually to less than 4 minutes. This efficiency is crucial in healthcare settings where time is often of the essence.
  2. Accuracy: The system has shown high accuracy, with 88% of the AI-generated text accepted by the provider without edits, minimizing the risk of errors that can occur with manual data entry.
  3. Focus on Patient Care: By automating the administrative task of charting, doctors can spend more time focusing on patient care, enhancing the quality of healthcare services.
  4. Scalability: Given that this is an AI-based system, it can potentially be scaled up across other healthcare settings, leading to industry-wide improvements in healthcare delivery.
  5. Data richness: AI-generated charts are reported to be 2.5 times more detailed than manual ones, potentially leading to more comprehensive and informed healthcare decisions.
here are some implications to think about...
P.S. If you like this kind of analysis, there's more in this free newsletter that tracks the biggest issues and implications of generative AI tech. It helps you stay up-to-date in the time it takes to have your morning coffee.
submitted by rowancheung to ArtificialInteligence [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 15:49 shylittlepot Teletherapy tips/tricks

Hello! I've done teletherapy in the past, but even with a smaller caseload, I struggled to plan for sessions and found the task to be very overwhelming. When I have a plan for the session I feel confident/competent it's just the organization and planning that kills me.
I know about boomcards,, Ed puzzle, TPT, YouTube. I would love to hear your favorite resources.
More importantly, if you have any strategies for planning, please share. In the past I kept a Google doc and wrote the client's name and links to a few activities, but I feel like I can't remember those activities if they're not right in front of my face and remember that I can use them with other clients. So I spent a lot of time doom browsing for new activities. If there is such a thing as a teletherapy master library sorted by goals I'd be very willing to pay money if it was good quality.
Sincerely, SLP with executive functioning probs
submitted by shylittlepot to slp [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 15:43 chosengem1 AQA AS CHEMISTRY Paper 2 MAY 2023 QUESTION PAPER > Organic and Physical Chemistry
submitted by chosengem1 to u/chosengem1 [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 14:52 danawanzer Call for proposals: Open Science in Evaluation

Please consider submitting a proposal to an upcoming special issue of New Directions for Evaluation (NDE) on Open Science in Evaluation. We are seeking chapter proposals that broadly discuss open science as it relates to evaluation. Articles do not have to be empirical, but authors should be prepared to share any data or materials related to their articles as exemplifying open science practices. Interested authors should submit a proposal to the guest editors by Sunday, August 13, 2023 at 11:59pm ET. Questions about abstracts and whether proposals might be a good fit can be sent to the co-editors prior to August 13. Please read the full call for proposals for more information and contact information.
Additionally, we are seeking funding to make the entire issue open access. If your organization, or an organization you know, might be interested, please contact me through the information on the call for proposals.
submitted by danawanzer to Open_Science [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 14:42 Johnny_Boy398 Africa Rework Proposal: Bêafrîka, Katanga, and the Mercenary Kingdoms of Africa

Africa Rework Proposal: Bêafrîka, Katanga, and the Mercenary Kingdoms of Africa
(This is part of a continuing series, links to which will be provided in the comments below)
Bêafrîka State: Bob Denard, Jean-Bédel Bokassa and the mercenary state.
The term “warlord” has been abused by many as a catch all term for any armed african group. It brings to mind images of a barbaric, violent oaf seeking to enrich themselves with trinkets and money off the back of their military extortion: an example of the primitive and bloodthirsty nature of the african. This is certainly the purpose of the term for the Germans, who seek to paint all native armed resistance in this light in order to justify their own return to the continent. But despite this abuse of the term, and its unjust application, it is not made up out of whole cloth: bandits, criminal gangs and short sighted thugs do exist among the africans as they do in all people, and the chaos of the German collapse has given these characters the opportunity of a lifetime. In the former RK Zentralafrika this is seen most clearly in the “mercenary state” of Bêafrîka.
Borders of a successful Bêafrîka. Many post-colonial African nations are accused of being artificial: random lines drawn on a map for the convenience of foreigners, and thus doomed to be either failures or exploitive facades. The truth of this statement is debatable: what makes a nation “organic”, is it truly critical that one be so? Are the struggles of new African nations so easily encapsulated? The argument goes on but all will agree on this: Bêafrîka is an utterly artificial and extractive state which can only begrudgingly be called a nation at all.
The north-west of Zentralafrika has always been something of a hodgepodge. The initial conquest of the area from the Free French meant the roll back of any “nation building” expenditures in favor of reverting back to the old company rule. Corvee slavery, plantations and almost non-existent infrastructure was the rule even under the French, and as such the transition to German ownership was almost seamless. If the average native african noticed a difference at all it was in the flags and helmets of the whites who terrorized them: their managers and guards stayed essentially the same. As such the region was seen by independence agitators as ripe for their own movements to grow in. Though such resistance was kept on a tight leash by the Germans it finally burst forth in the northern incursion of 1954. Supported by Nigeria and with the German forces drawn thin by the ongoing Wester Russian War, socialist militants made a lightning strike southward in the hopes of toppling Zentralafrika. For a moment it seemed as if they would do it: the road to Leopoldville was only lightly guarded and the rebel numbers were, in theory, vast. But it was not to be: poor command structures and infighting slowed the rebel advance for long enough that Kommissar Krogmann and Seigfreid Muller were able to reorganize and counterattack with the aid of a new breed of soldier: the Mercenary.
Though having been present in the role of corporate security for years this war was the instance when the Congo Mercenaries truly became a force to be reckoned with. Restrictions on who could hold a gun were dropped and the ranks of mercs swollen with Europeans, Asians and Africans. Though typically small groups and far more independent than Krogmann would have liked, they were all well acquainted with their trade and often brought along their own equipment. They could move fast, hit hard, and there was no reason to suspect their siding with the revolutionaries. With the aid of mercenaries and the cash of selling off vast tracts of land to private holders the revolutionaries were pushed back, and the long guerilla war began. Some areas of Zentralafrika were essentially passive, or had other security solutions. But in the north it was the mercenaries and the garrison which enforced the German order. Names of these men would soon become minor celebrities to the military minded, and their benefactor Seigfreid Muller got a promotion. But for our story only three names matter: the French “mercenary king” Bob Denard, “black Napoleon” Jean-Bédel Bokassa, and “the tiger” Alexandre Banza.
Though it is the armed men who hold real power in their hands, the counter-revolutionary forces are not all German and French soldiers of fortune. The APL’s anti-clerical excesses and radical nativism also alienated the thin class of native collaborators and most of all the catholic church. Barthelemy Boganda was one such native conservative, being a native priest who has tried to act through the church to both reform and aid his flock. After the death of his mentor Marcel Grandin Boganda has become a leading figure of pro-native reform without resorting to violence or leftist radicalism.
With the alliance of French and German landowners paying for their protection the mercenaries, though still technically led by Europeans, became the foremost armed presence in the north. Battling against resistance internal and external by 1962 they have become a hated and envied force, and one which Krogmann is eager to bring into line. But the South Africa War will get in the way of any reforms, with mercenaries once again being called on to shoulder the burden of warfare and internal suppression. By the end of the conflict, no matter how it ends, the mercenaries will have become an even more entrenched force in Zentralafrika. Of course when Huttig takes over this will no longer be tolerated. Having already been humiliated by Muller before, Huttig will take great pleasure in dismissing and rounding up the mercenaries, forcing them to join his forces as regular conscripts without any special privileges. Or rather he would, if he had been fast enough to catch them. When news came of Krogmann’s death and Huttig’s assumption of control the mercenaries did not wait for the order to come: they fled if they were able, and if not they seamlessly transitioned from paid agents of the state to new warlords out for their own survival and enrichment. And more than anyone they congregated around the new king of the mercenaries: Bob Denard.
For the year Huttig’s reign lasts the gangs of former mercenaries will be yet another thorn in his side: raiding, bribing and leading his forces on goose chases. And thanks to Huttig’s destruction of any boats or airplanes he could not gain control over these same former mercenaries had nothing else they could do, unless they cared to gamble trekking all the way to Free France. But Huttig’s flailing attempts to bring them to heel was only one of many threats: in this same area socialist militants and petty warlords also sprung up, and sought to destroy the hated mercenaries themselves. When Huttig dies and the German forces retreat to Leopoldville all pretense will be dropped: the Pan-africans, Fang Gabonese and Cameroonian revolutionaries will all attempt to proclaim new states and to expel the gangsters of German capitalism for good. But with their attention divided and the mercenaries still possessing skill, fire power, and all the money the old landowners could scrap together the attempt will only be half successful. Right between the three of them the new Bêafrîka State will be proclaimed.
Born in 1929 Bob Denard first got the taste for battle during the French State’s failed expeditions against De Gaulle in the late 40s. Deciding that there was better pay and better leadership to be had in Zentralafrika he was one of the first mercenaries brought in through the “King of the Mercs” Siegfried Müller. Though he has little patience for the Reich’s racial code he is a brave commander and an ardent anti-communist. After Müller’s disappearance upon Hüttig’s ascension the stranded mercenaries looked to those bold and skilled enough to lead them, and found it in Denard.
Under the nominal presidency of Boganda, who was practically kidnaped to take the role, the new state is in perhaps the most precarious position of all post-independence states.Their domestic support rests on a incredibly thin strata of white landlords, a handful of native conservatives and a mercenary army which is already looking for a way out the back door. And opposing them is a very dedicated coalition of native nationalists and revolutionaries. It would be the most natural thing in the world for this ramshackle “state” to disintegrate. But there is one thing which can unite them, and can make them all take the risk of fighting it out: Money. Specifically diamonds, gold, and other precious metals which can be sold high on the global market. The mercenaries, native or foreign, have struck for fame in Bêafrîka with the process of becoming more than the lap dogs of the wealthy, but instead to be the wealthy themselves. Baganda hates this of course, but no one asked: the guns call the shots here. And besides, the APL has already branded him a traitor to the people: in the mercenaries' eyes he should be thankful that he still has his head. And so it is decided, the mercenaries would make their own little heaven, and all they had to do to keep it was win the war for it.
Against them stands the APL, their long-time adversary. When the war begins these Pan-africanists, supported by Cameroon and Nigeria, will take the fight to Bêafrîka. This would probably be a death sentence if it were not for the fact the APL is fighting a two front war with the Nationalists to their east. If the mercenary state should still fail it will be dismantled, with the surrounding states taking over its former territory. But if it should win this first war the gamble will have, for now, paid off. Bob, Bokassa and the rest will be able to begin bringing in the money as they use outright criminal methods to both extract and then sell the bounty of the land. The people, of course, hate this as does the nominal “president”. And within the mercenary ranks new fissures will soon begin to show. When faced with a united enemy these men were willing to work together, but now that the threat of death no longer hands quite so close the question of dividing the spoils has quickly turned into a feeding frenzy: it seems to be every mercenary clique for itself trying to carve out its own privileged fiefdom. And it is here that the reformists, such as they are, spy an opportunity.
Alexandre Banza, born 1932 to the Gbaya people, is one of the very few high ranking officers who have a ethnic connection to the land they now rule. His story is much the same as the rest of the black mercenaries: born to a poor family he saw mercenary service as a path to excitement, respect and advancement he would never get on his own. Intelligent, ambitious, and unscrupulous he would rise to become a commander of his own group before the Huttig takeover, and should he take power will rename his state the Bêafrîka Republic, embarking on a cynical campaign of “reform”.
The continued presence of white mercenaries is especially resented by the people, and none more so than commander of the presidential guard and de facto leader of the Bêafrîka State Bob Denard. As such soon after the emergency of war has passed Denard will be dismissed from his position and the two most prominent native warlords Alexandre Banza and Jean-Bédel Bokassa will be invited in to take command. Denard of course has no interest in leaving, and will arrest the president in his own residence, but not before word of the new decree leaked to the streets and the other mercenaries. So it is that the fate of Bêafrîka will be decided the only way a state built on mercenaries could be: with a shootout for control of the president. On one side is Denard: he has already made overtures to Free France and the OFN, as well as criminal contacts in Europe. By leveraging these contacts, and with the aid of the remaining white mercenaries who see his removal as the precursor to their own, he may be able to fight his way out and rise to power over the bodies of his rival warlords.
If Bob Denard and his presidential guard emerges victorious president Boganda’s days will be numbered. Unceremoniously removing and replacing him with a more compliant puppet who I will not even bother you with the name of, any promised elections will be delayed, and then delayed indefinitely. In the end even the facade of democracy will be left behind as the government instead relies on various emergency decrees and under the table deals, as well as outright coercion to cement its power. This is the true mercenary state, in which the armed and powerful take what they want from the weak and destitute: the state will see its revenues come from precious minerals and eventually oil, but just as much from the underground world of smuggling, arms trading, mercenary contracts on behalf of any who will pay, and even (if rumors are to be believed) human trafficking. Denard himself is not so unsophisticated as many of his henchmen: he portrays himself and his state as anti-communist crusaders who are willing to go to the ends of the earth to protect the people from the bolshevik menace. But it makes no difference to the people and to his neighborhood: unless those friendly to him such as the Free French and the Belgian regionalists are victorious both Denard and his state will find themselves facing external invasion sooner or later. When that happens, surrounded by disciplined enemies and facing ever increasing internal revolts, Denard will do what mercenaries do best: he will gather what valuables and guns he can before fleeing. But if this should not happen: if the Congo should remain shattered, and Nigerian ambitions fail, who knows how long the dream may last?
Living as they do in a half criminal status all mercenaries are well acquainted with the underworld. Under Bob however the state itself will come to resemble a crime syndicate, with Bob acting as the Mafia boss. More than any other single resource diamonds are the breadwinner for the “White King of Bêafrîka”, but taking a page out of Manchuria’s playbook drug production and trafficking are increasingly filling the ledger as well. The diplomatic denouncements are nothing: there are always back doors which money can open.
But all this is only if Bob and his people should win the battle for President Boganda. For the first time having the full backing of the streets and with a larger manpower pool to draw from it is likely that the native warlords Alexandre Banza and Jean-Bédel Bokassa will become the victors, chasing out the (competition) colonizers in favor of their own rule. They shall of course be rewarded by the eternally thankful president for their good deeds: Bokassa will take over as the new head of the presidential guard, while Banza will become minister of finance and foreign minister. But just as inevitably there is no throne on earth big enough for two people and so the former allies will soon look for a way to oust the other. The hope of the civilians lay in the victory of the Alexandre Banza clique. If he should succeed in arresting and disappearing his rivals Banza will seek to somewhat moderate the state. Rather than rely on naked coercion he will enforce the most basic of social contracts: in return for the country's obedience he will provide protection. Though the basic facts of the Bêafrîka State shall remain: a thriving underground, an economy based on raw export, and a army of criminals, the worst aspects of this rule will be softened and the “civilianization” of government give cosmetic reform to the regime, and finally permit the nominal president a level of dignity, even being allowed to push some of his catholic inspired social reforms. Though not much more than swapping a military uniform for a business suit this will go some way to providing a sense of normalcy, and allow the state to take a non-aligned stance rather than become the plaything of some foreign power.
On the other hand is the favorite of the soldiers Jean-Bédel Bokassa. You know him as the “mad” emperor of the C.A.R. otl, but there was always a method to his madness: one cannot remain in power for over a decade by being stupid. Where Banza seeks to normalize his regime and to be seen as a developmental junta rather than a warlord, Bokassa will lean into his reputation as a warlord, adding esoteric elements to bolster his rule over strangers. Under Bokassa the new system will be entirely personal: he will take the already weak state apparatus and effectively dismantle it, instead relying on personalized dependents to govern the capital city, and leaving the remainder of the country to its own devices so long as it bent the knee when ordered. No longer able to convincingly portray himself as a benign figure to a people who are mostly foreigners to him, he will instead tap into local superstitions to appear as the master of the occult, ruling as a man to be feared even beyond the grave and allegedly indulging in cannibalism. Perhaps even more importantly however he will make a hard switch from western backing to eastern, seeking the protection and the money of Japan. In this at least he will be fairly competent: negotiating the relationship with Japan through a mixture of bribery, utility, and threatened confiscations to wring out as much foreign aid and diplomatic backing as he can. Beyond this his rule will be one of chaos and decline with the people seeing their standard of living decrease yet further to a near subsistence level. But it will be a chaos which Bokassa alone is the ruler of.
Jean-Bédel Bokassa has been fighting longer than most: volunteering for the Free French during WW2, he was captured and ultimately released during the German conquest of Gabon. From there he drifted as a menial laborer until the northern insurrection forced the Reichskommissar to bend, and Bokassa was called up by an old french commander. From there he rose to be the de-facto head of his own suit by 1962, and now the undisputed leader of his own fiefdom. The extreme personalism and close relation with Japan will eventually result in his coronation as the sovereign of the Central African Empire.
Whether it be cynical pragmatism or esoteric terror the Bêafrîka State will remain a pariah among their fellow african nations. Cameroon and Gabon will consistently attempt to undermine and take over their territory for themselves, while even the Germans will see any government as traitors and rebels. Though its military may find a backer and its people may become cowed, the incredibly fragile state will come to an end sooner than later, unless they get very lucky. Any Nigerian victory will be a disaster, but a successful unifyer to the south and east would be a great threat as well. They were already founded in the war against one of those potential unifiers and all contenders for power recognize that a united Congo is a dangerous Congo. So, either through direct aid in the case of Denard or cheering from the sidelines Bêafrîka must hope for the victory of the regionalists and Jean Schramme.
Katanga, the Regional Alliance, and “The Belgian”.
For the Pan-Africans, the Republicans, the Nationalists and even the Germans survival is not enough: they wish to reunite the old Belgian colony under their vision of the future, and perhaps even seek expansion beyond that. But not all “congolese” feel this way: in particular the province of Katanga sees no reason why it should not be free to plot its own course. Wealthy in its own right with economic ties to the south the elite of the mining provence see no reason why they should be chained to a central government, and are at least partially supported in this by the people. Just what future this “independence” takes is is still up for grabs, but in the chaotic aftermath of Huttings death Moïse Tshombe, Albert Kalonji and Jean Schramme will form a triumvirate to lead the Regional Alliance.
Élisabethville slum. Katanga is the richest province in the Congo, as well as the one with the highest concentration of Belgians, and as such has seen the beginning of a modern city develop in its capital. It has also been the prime region for victims of the Congo Dam to migrate into, on account of its relative stability and high labor demand. This has all combined to put a great deal of pressure on those populating the land south of the lake and the development of modern slums alongside the growing city.
Katanga is, in 1962, the last remnant of Belgian colonial rule left after the German takeover. Not formally of course, that had been swept away along with Belgum itself in the 50s. But just beneath the German surface the old colonial trinity of church, company and stick still held true, and mostly under Belgian control. In the aftermath of WW2 and the establishment of Burgundy many Belgians had chosen to migrate into their old colonial territory, either for political or economic reasons. Their numbers would soon fill out the officer ranks of the Force Publique, the managerial posts of various new mines and plantations, and the pews of the catholic church. But it would not be the end of their difficulties: the old trinity clashed with Krogmann’s designs for the colony and after formally absorbing it in 1955 the contest began. Where the catholic church once held near total control over healthcare and education, not to mention religious life, Krogmann favored secularism for the european and promoted dechristianization for the native. His hopes for dissolving the FP and for removing french and dutch from the lexicon would be similarly resisted. By 1962 this contest of wills has continued to grind on, with the steady advance of germanization being constantly interrupted by economic and political expediency. The Belgian Katangaians find themselves stuck uncomfortably between German pressure from above and Native pressure from below.
This native pressure is on one hand from the educated evoles, always looking to improve the lot of themselves and sometime of their kin. But it also increasingly comes from the restless masses who have come under pressure from the fallout of the Congo Dam. As the Belgian congo moderately prospered the cities began to grow as well, with the colonial authorities making tentative attempts to accommodate the influx. But after the Congo dam and the German takeover both of these trends changed. Millions of refugees fled the great flood into the wealthiest regions they could go: Leopoldville and Katanga. The population of the cities exploded, and the subsistence agriculture still practiced by most Congolese came under incredible pressure as migrants and squatters proliferated. The Belgian authorities meanwhile were left without the resources needed to truly accommodate this change, and were left with only the Force Publique to try and keep the “indigenes” separate from the new “foreigners”. It was in this context that regionalist associations with the goal of protecting specific people, such as the Lula or Lunda, came to dominate the native political scene, such as it was. Both of these movements discovered that they had similar enemies: both resented German power and feared the “national” native resistance. But this did not yet mean they became allies.
Moïse Tshombe, the nominal head of Katanga. Born to a noble lineage and always wealthy, his desire to be liked and his lack of spin have made him into an ideal puppet for other interests. His current sponsor is the remnants of the old Belgian Union Minière, which comprise much of Katanga’s economy. Though not hated by any “his” government is in reality more beholden to his lieutenants such as Godefroid Munongo.
Katanga had lived in an atmosphere of tension even before the rise of Huttig and the advent of the “Afrikareich” did nothing to alleviate this tension. As part of Huttig’s program to fully disarm the natives and bring all armed forces under SS command he attempted to disarm the Force Publique and Belgian mercenaries, rolling them into its own armed forces. Prominent civilian Belgians were arrested and replaced with SS men, leaving both the Belgians and the natives angered. Under this new pressure some decided to give it up: the new regime could not be bargained with as the prior one was, and any resistance clearly meant death. But enterprising elements were not willing to take death laying down: most prominently this included Godefroid Munongo and Jean Schramme. Using their own wealthy connections and estates as payment they would form small resistance groups, and would be the first formal alliance between the Belgians and the regionalists. To cut a long story short when Huttig dies and the Germans retreat to Leopoldville, those SS governors who do not flee will find their lifespans much shorter than expected, and those brave or desperate enough to resist Huttig will return to power. In the face of nationalist calls to reunite the congo however, the regionalists will move first. With the lavish bribery of local mining conglomerates and the justification of “popular will”, the Belgian community led by Schramme and localist leaders will form the first concret result of their ad-hoc alliance: The State of Katanga.
In its first years Katanga is a divided and unsettled place, forced into unity by the common fear of external subjugation but beholden to competing political camps. The state itself is at least nominally led by Moïse Tshombe, descendant of the kings of the Lunda people and scion to one of the last wealthy native families. He is the figurehead of a poorly organized class of native elites and collaborators, most often independently wealthy and committed just as much to their own economic privileges as they are to the cause of regionalism itself. But despite this Tshombe heads the closest thing to a “popular movement” in the new state: the "Confédération des associations tribales du Katanga" (CONAKAT). Formed in the interest of protecting the livelihoods of the Lunda against the encroaching migrants it is through this party that the people are mobilized for war. Relying on traditional authority and elite connections in the name of a tribalism has been effective in at least countering the partisans of the republicans and nationalists which contest the provence. Just as in the other contenders the war is as much a mater of internal division as it is defeating external challenges. But in order to meet those external enemies the party has been obliged to do so with the aid of their “ally”, the Belgians.
Jean Schramme, despite his official profession, is less of a mercenary and more of a Belgian “contractor” who has a reputation for getting things done and resisting German encroachment. Coming to Africa soon after the end of WW2 he is part of a new breed of Belgians who consider Zentralafrika, or more accurately Katanga, as their true home and embrace the ideal of a paternal ruler of their “primitive” neighbors. Being a successful entrepreneur as well as part time leader of the “Leopard Battalion” Jean has become a prominent part of the Belgian expat community. But though he no longer wishes to return to Europe do not think he has forgotten what the Nazi’s did: the old motherland is dead by German hands, and he has not forgiven them.
Just as on the native side the Belgians are divided internally: German policy was frustrating and insulting, but it was also relatively stable and offered a protection against the natives surrounding them. To forgo this protection and risk battle with the world's superpowers in the name of an uncertain independence requires a boldness uncommon in men. But since when did the meek make history? Returning from his armed exile Schremme will find the FP and Belgian police in disarray, and take it upon himself to topple the last of the SS governors. In his mind there is no question: in order for the Belgians to be free and prosperous they must take the risk of rebellion against Germany and carve out their own state in the chaos. But despite his personal exploits he is unable to do this on his own, and so despite his personal distaste for allying with the native regionalists his own backers in the belgian mining and administrative class have forced him to make common cause with “their” evolese. Regardless Schremme has become the critical belgian commander in this rebelion, bringing the remainder of the belgian community with him whether they like it or not. He leads in a mercenary style, never far from the front lines and with a greater emphasis on personal bravery than more mundane things like logistics.
Though Katanga is the heart of the Regionalist Alliance it is still only one part of that alliance: to the eastern flank is Sud-Kasaï, led by Albert Kalonji as the vanguard state of the Luba secessionist movement. Both Kalonji and Tshombe claim to be protecting their people (Luba and Lunda respectively) from becoming minorities within their own land and from becoming the playthings of another foreign power, whether that be Germania, Washington or any other place. They are also both from prominent and wealthy local families, who have cooperated with the belgian colonizers for generations and have every personal incentive to resist foreign acquisition. As such their support is not primarily from the people, but from the oligarchs and the army. These are two significant advantages however: While other factions are scrambling to put together a military, a state, and to pay for it all, Katanga and her allies are able to fall back on the old colonial power structures, expanding the FP and leveraging oligarchical ties to slap together an army faster than their rivals. With the mix of audacious leadership, money and the Schramme loyalist mercenaries/formed FP officers the alliance may be able to snatch its independence despite the lack of international backing.
Map of regionalist victory, Azandeland acts as a placeholder for local authority (or lack thereof), Sud-Kasai is the Luba Empire. The immediate issue facing the regionalists will be export access: the states survival depends on the revenue from its extensive mining operations, and if that material cannot be exported it is worthless. For this Katanga must either negotiate a trade deal with the German remnants, or seek a detente with the self proclaimed frontline of liberation Zambia. Neither is eager to do this, but the world calls for what Katanga can provide, most of all Uranium. Eventually the market will win out, and one side will decide it is better to compromise principle than give the other an opportunity to gain access to the Katanga bounty.
IF VICTORIOUS the Regionalist Alliance will comprise an expanded State of Katanga, the Luba Empire, and a number of minor eastern powers propped up by Katanga. For the Luba and the Eastern chiefs the question of post war politics is an easy one: tribal traditionalism shall prevail as Albert Kalonji names himself king and the local chiefs are either bribed or threatened into compliance with the new order. While some may make efforts to modernize and advance their domains it will only be done under the watchful and occasionally helpful eye of Katanga. The only question remaining is who will be in control of Katanga itself. Jean Schramme is not a reasonable man, or at least not a moderate one: if he feels that he and the Belgians are not granted their proper place he may well try to overthrow Moïse Tshombe and install himself as the leader of the new state. The natives are less than satisfied as well: though free of foreign control it is clear to them that the old order is no longer acceptable: the people who fought and won the war for independence demand that their sacrifice be rewarded in some meaningful way. And most of all the question of race can no longer be papered over: The Belgians and Europeans remain on top, the migrants have been savaged, and the land and jobs available are not enough to satisfy them all.
To reconcile these internal difficulties a conference shall be held between the Belgian leadership of the army and company's one on hand, and the native oligarchs and officers on the other to see if a viable solution can be worked out. On the Belgian side the question is that of security and property: they wish to maintain the full roster of legal rights granted to them by belgian law, to keep their property and company concessions, and for a Belgian “veto” in the national government to ensure that Belgian rights are not trampled by some future populist government. On the CONAKAT side is a desire to renegotiate the terms of the “social contract”: to ensure a majority native voice in government which cannot be overruled by Belgian privilege, greater native ownership of property and the full abolition of any legal barriers to their advancement. However both sides are united in seeking stability and in their distrust of the congolese “masses”. Those masses are not without a voice themselves: through labor unions, dissident political parties and new officer associations the experience of warfare has made the people politically aware. If the result of the conference does not give some bones to the people it may find that its support is far too narrow to be stable.
Union Minière, once the undisputed master of the Katanga economy, has declined somewhat under German overlordship. With a majority of its shares owned by the Belgian state and its former leadership fleeing to America after the end of the war its foundations were shaky. When Krogmann began the great sell off and rescinded the Belgian Congo’s autonomy the company found itself in yet more hot water. Transitioning to a locally owned company within Zentralafrika itself the Union has been forced to cut back on its paternalistic spending to make ends meet. Beyond the typical demands for labor rights and wage increases the Kantaga people also wish for a return to the housing, education and social protection once afforded by the leviathan. With its place in Katanga once again secure this may just be possible.
A successful conference will be one of compromise. For the people a number of social protections and laws will be promised: greater state funding to education, hospitals, and housing will be promised, along with a hike in wages. In order to afford this the belgians will need to accept their privileged economic position comes with a responsibility to fund the state which protects it: though direct taxes may be a bridge too far a system of expected “gifts” and an expansion of the old paternalism into state guided policy may work out. In return for their material contributions the Belgians will receive legal autonomy, organizing their own political parties and keeping their land. The native oligarchs meanwhile would take the national stage, being granted privileged places within the Katanga economy as well as using CONAKAT as their vehicle for political dominance. Concessions and compromises such as these require that all parties trust the other to keep up their end of the bargain, and not simply alter the deal when they feel they are able. And in the aftermath of a brutal civil war and a political culture of corruption such trust is very hard to come by. But if these difficulties are overcome, and Jean Schramme is kept mollified, the new State of Katanga will be ruled as a collaborative oligarchy, keeping real representation out of the hands of the people and wealth in the hands of a few, but also a relatively stable and moderate government which is willing to compromise when need be. Unless it is a question of distrusted ethnic groups attempting to secede from the state or restart Congolese unification, in which case the Katanga Gendarmerie will be the only answer given.
But what if this conference does not succeed? What if the protests outside become too large, or the sides are too inflexible, or if Jean Schramme believes the rights of Belgians are being sold too cheaply? Then the Rule of Fire will come back and those with the force to crush their opposition will prevail. And in Katanga that can only mean one thing: Schramme and his allies will stage a coup, placing themselves in charge once again as an emergency government. Those unwilling to ally with him will be dismissed, replaced with those who are. The new mission of the state is the protection of “Belgian civilization” in Katanga, with Schramme attempting to revive the old trinity of Church, State and Company under his guiding hand. He never truly wanted to be in this position: he would much rather simply go back to his plantation and be master of his own little world. But he belives that his new homeland calls out for leadership and guts it seems only he can provide, and so he will seek to lead it into the future he envisions. One where the Congo natives are grateful and subservient to their betters, where all the structures of the trinity are led by Europeans to the benefit of all. Of course most of the natives have very different ideas about what the future should look like, and so Schremma’s Katanga will immediately be thrown into a bush war as the old civil war factions reform as guerrilla movements seeking to topple his dictatorship. The profits of Katanga are vast, especially if one is willing to sell uranium to anyone willing to buy, but how long will money and determination be able to hold against the will of the people?
At a stretch the white population of Katanga is 100,000, while the total african population is somewhere north of 1.5 million. This is before one considers the increasing populations of the Luba Empire and the eternal frontier of the Eastern Congo. And then there is the highly likely presence of hostile regimes on the borders: all the money in the world cannot win Schramme this Bush War, and he will either need to swallow his pride and accept democratization for the natives or accept the return of the Reich as suzerain. And even that may not be enough to avoid the rage of a people betrayed.
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2023.06.06 14:33 hungryapplenz Transform Lunchtime with Bento Kids Lunch Box Sets in NZ: Balanced Meals Made Easy

Transform Lunchtime with Bento Kids Lunch Box Sets in NZ: Balanced Meals Made Easy
Elevate your child's lunchtime experience with Bento Kids Lunch Box Sets in NZ. Enjoy easy portioning, freshness, and organization with these innovative lunch boxes.

kids lunch box with compartments NZ
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2023.06.06 14:31 AmZoey AQA AS CHEMISTRY Paper 2 may 2023 official question paper- Organic and Physical Chemistry

AQA AS CHEMISTRY Paper 2 may 2023 official question paper- Organic and Physical Chemistry - AS CHEMISTRY Paper 2 may 2023 - Stuvia
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2023.06.06 14:19 bowedsiding95 Trove Of Nearly 10K Hunter Biden Laptop Photos, and Docs Appear On Organized Website – Today Leaked

Trove Of Nearly 10K Hunter Biden Laptop Photos, and Docs Appear On Organized Website – Today Leaked submitted by bowedsiding95 to u/bowedsiding95 [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 14:08 fuzzychamois 4wpo Bleeding - normal?

I’m 4wpo yesterday from a vaginal hysterectomy. I started back at work but I work remote from a desk. At the need of the day I started bleeding. It’s red and enough to need a pad instead of a panty liner. I’ve been having on and off spotting since 2wpo from stitches dissolving but this is heavier and red. I don’t have any pain except some slight cramping on the right side today.
For those that have gone through this is this normal or call my doc? I really don’t want to go in for an exam if it’s not necessary. Thanks!
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2023.06.06 14:07 chelseablei Urgent Care PAs and viral illnesses

I’m not a doctor at all; I’m a patient. Though, Reddit has this flattering interpretation that I am a heavily seasoned medical professional based on the subs I am recommended, like this one. Disclaimer: I don’t even know which side of the body my major organs are on. With that being said…
I went to urgent care to get a doctor’s note and to see if I could get better recommendations for a sinus infection I have. I explained my symptoms, and she checked my temperature, HR, and breathing. No fever, no symptoms other than trouble breathing in all the way and extreme facial pain from sinus pressure. My O2 levels were concerning (88% at one point I think I heard her say? I saw 94% on the little finger do-dad but she threw it in the trash and yelled at the MA to get her a new one?).
I told her I saw a ton of confusing info online about what the best medication is to treat a sinus infection. The facial pressure is, as you can probably guess, insane. I always get a sinus infection after a cold, which is what I believed I had, but I left urgent care with 500mg (then 250mg on days 2-5) axityromycin, 40mg Prednisone (20 mg on days 3-5), and basic Sudafed, which I already have at home.
I’m taking the medication because I’m a regular Joe shmoe with no medical training and no better knowledge beyond “the doctor wouldn’t have given it to you if she wouldn’t think it would help you.” But… idk, I have this weird feeling in my gut (maybe it’s the antibiotics?) that I’m not doing my body any favors taking these meds. I mean, do I really have a bacterial infection? Is this just the normal expectation when you go to urgent care for something seemingly viral? I didn’t press her for meds — I told her I just wanted something to alleviate my facial pressure. I know some urgent care docs may feel pressured themselves to give patients something instead of the old, “rest and take Tylenol!” To make patients think they’re getting more out of their urgent care visit but she brought up antibiotics, not me.
Idk, I guess I’m just frustrated because my face still hurts and probably will still hurt since it’s probably viral, and now I’ve got all this medication that I paid all this money for from someone I thought would guide me in a direction different than Dr. Google. I’m sure this kind of thing is posted numerous times and is a major complaint from many doctors, but maybe someone out there will feel solace knowing there are patients out there (non-medical field patients) who feel duped by the system too?
Next time I’ll just stick with Sudafed.
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2023.06.06 14:05 biogasinkerala Harnessing the Power of Biogas in Thrissur: A Sustainable Solution for Energy and Waste Management

Thrissur, a vibrant city nestled in the state of Kerala, India, is known for its cultural heritage, festivals, and lush green landscapes. In recent years, the city has also gained recognition for its commitment to sustainable development and environmental preservation. One notable initiative that has gained momentum in Thrissur is the utilization of biogas as a renewable energy source and an effective solution for waste management. This article delves into the significance of biogas in Thrissur, exploring its benefits, implementation, and the positive impact it has had on the local community. Looking for a portable biogas plant in Kerala or Portable biogas plant for home? Our home systems are easy to install and eco-friendly. Get yours today!
Biogas: A Sustainable Energy Source:
Biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide produced by the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, has emerged as a viable alternative to fossil fuels. In Thrissur, the primary source of biogas production is organic waste, including food scraps, agricultural residues, and livestock manure. These waste materials, which would otherwise contribute to landfills or release harmful greenhouse gases, are now being efficiently converted into a valuable energy resource.
Implementation and Infrastructure:
Thrissur has witnessed a remarkable upsurge in the establishment of biogas plants and community-based initiatives. These plants utilize modern technologies, such as anaerobic digesters, to facilitate the breakdown of organic matter and capture the resulting biogas. The city has also implemented decentralized biogas systems, allowing households and institutions to generate their own biogas and reduce their dependence on conventional energy sources.
The Thrissur Municipal Corporation, in collaboration with local NGOs and private enterprises, has played a crucial role in promoting and facilitating the adoption of biogas technology. They have provided technical expertise, financial support, and educational programs to encourage residents and businesses to embrace this eco-friendly solution.
Environmental and Economic Benefits:
The shift towards biogas has brought numerous environmental benefits to Thrissur. Firstly, biogas production significantly reduces the emission of greenhouse gases, mitigating climate change and improving air quality. Secondly, the organic waste that was once a burden on landfills is now effectively managed, minimizing soil and water pollution.
In addition to environmental advantages, biogas production has created new economic opportunities for the local community. Farmers and agricultural workers have found a lucrative market for their crop residues and livestock waste, leading to additional income streams. Moreover, the reduced reliance on fossil fuels has resulted in cost savings for households and institutions, further contributing to the region’s economic well-being.
Social Impact and Community Participation:
The success of biogas implementation in Thrissur can be attributed to the active involvement and participation of the local community. Public awareness campaigns, workshops, and training programs have empowered residents to embrace biogas technology. Through community-led initiatives, such as cooperative biogas plants, citizens have become stakeholders in the sustainable development of their city.
Furthermore, biogas plants have enabled the generation of employment opportunities, particularly for the marginalized sections of society. The construction, operation, and maintenance of biogas plants have provided jobs and skills training, fostering social inclusivity and economic empowerment.
Thrissur’s journey towards harnessing the power of biogas exemplifies the city’s commitment to sustainable development and environmental stewardship. By utilizing organic waste to produce renewable energy, Thrissur has become a model for other cities in India and beyond. The integration of biogas technology has not only reduced greenhouse gas emissions and waste pollution but has also enhanced economic opportunities and empowered the local community. As Thrissur continues to embrace biogas, it paves the way for a greener and more sustainable future.
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2023.06.06 14:02 StoneAthleticClub [WTS] Kizer Friday Club Denim Feist, Kizer Mini Sheepdog 4v Knifecenter, Kizer Carbon Fiber Sheepdog Full size

New never cut or carried. Never disassembled or sharpened. Limited edition KFC 20cv coated steel with denim micarta show side scale and titanium framelock. Centered and smooth front flipper. Comes with box docs and pouch.
Second owner. Has been used lightly on a couple boxes. I never disassembled or sharpened it but not sure of previous history. 4v stonewashed steel and black micarta scales. Good action and centered. Has a small mark on the clip side blade and came to me like that. Comes with box and docs and pouch.
Cut paper. Disassembled to clean the action never sharpened. Owned this for awhile but it’s only sat around. S35VN Blackwash steel and carbon fiber scales. Centered and smooth action. Comes with box pouch and docs.
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2023.06.06 13:59 CCPlacements How To Get The Most Out Of Your Croma Campus Placement?

How To Get The Most Out Of Your Croma Campus Placement?
After completing 80% of the course, an active Croma Campus Student Placement cell begins organizing interview calls. We recommend that you have faith in your abilities and go into the interviews calmly.
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