Collin county court records

Our Right to Rule

2016.11.20 14:34 Our Right to Rule

#We're cleaning things up for the next week or so - we'll reinvite everyone again. Don't worry!

2023.06.03 12:06 Draygoes If someone refuses to sign an agreement, and you hide the fact that you're recording so that you can then get them to admit the terms of a verbal contract that they agreed to a couple of years ago, is that even slightly binding in court?

Like, I know it's not as powerful as a written agreement, but I'd have thought it would be able to pull some weight if the verbal agreement was recorded... right?
I'm sorry in advance if this is a dumb question. Since I know the person this is happening to. (His mom is refusing to sign a rent/lease agreement, but instead read it out loud. She's probably hoping that's not enforceable in court, but he's got it recorded and I'm worried about who's right.
Anyway, thanks for your time, and thanks for your service to law and order in this country. I'm willing to bet lawers don't hear that one often....
submitted by Draygoes to AskLawyers [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 11:36 Sky_The_Polar_Bear 7 Essential Steps to Remember While Navigating Custody Disputes

In our community, many of us, having undergone custody battles, could likely share hundreds of pointers to bear in mind. Nonetheless, I felt it would be useful to distill these into some fundamental guidelines that apply universally. I can't emphasize enough the importance of the third step on this list. However, the most crucial principle, which should always take precedence, is encapsulated in the sixth step: Always prioritize what is in the best interest of your child!
7 Essential Steps to Remember While Navigating Custody Disputes
  1. Understand Your Legal Rights: You must first understand your legal rights in a custody dispute, including your rights under state law and any existing custody agreement. It's important to know the difference between physical custody (where the child resides) and legal custody (who has the right to make decisions for the child), as well as joint versus sole custody arrangements.
  2. Consult with a Family Law Attorney: An attorney specializing in family law can provide the necessary legal advice tailored to your specific situation. They can also represent you in court and assist with negotiations.
  3. Document Everything: This includes all interactions with the other parent, time spent with your child, and your child's behaviors or statements. Emails, text messages, and other forms of written communication can all be useful pieces of evidence. Keep a desktop calendar for every year and mark notes on it every day. I recommend recording all in person interactions. If the situation is extremely volatile strap a GoPro to your chest. Sounds silly I know, but it can pay off. Remember to look up your local laws when recording someone. Video recordings are usually allowed to be admitted as an exhibit in court if relevant, however, always consult your attorney first. Store everything you have gathered in a dropbox file and share it with your attorney and they will go through it and pick out the best evidence that is admissible.
  4. Prepare Your Case: You should be prepared to provide evidence that demonstrates your ability to provide a safe, stable, and supportive environment for your child. This may include evidence related to your home, employment, and the involvement you have in your child's school or extracurricular activities.
  5. Mediation or Court Proceedings: If you cannot reach an agreement with the other parent, you may need to go through mediation or go to court. Mediation can be a less adversarial and often less expensive way of resolving custody disputes. However, if mediation fails, a court hearing will be necessary.
  6. Prioritize the Best Interests of the Child: Courts generally prioritize the best interests of the child when making custody decisions. This can include factors such as the child's age, their emotional ties to each parent, each parent's ability to provide for the child's needs, and the stability of each parent's home environment.
  7. Seek Emotional Support: Custody disputes can be stressful and emotionally draining. Therefore, it's important to have a support network, including family, friends, or a mental health professional, to help you navigate these challenges.
submitted by Sky_The_Polar_Bear to CustodyForFathers [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 11:01 dodobuggie Decoding legal document

A family member recently had a court date in another province (Canada) and the information/results from that are available online for public record. We are attempting to understand what everything means but we’re stuck at the bail part. Under “Bail Proc” it says ROW. We’ve scoured everything we can trying to decipher this and can’t figure it out. What does ROW stand for?
The only thing we can really find is Right of Way in terms of land issues but the legal matter itself pertains to family court.
submitted by dodobuggie to legaladvice [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 10:51 Kami1996 The Nine Hells: Nessus

I literally sit beneath eight tiers of scheming ambitious entities that represent primal law suffused with evil. The path from this realm leads to an infinite pit of chaos and evil. Now, tell me again how you and your ilk are the victims in this eternal struggle. - Asmodeus (Mordenkainen’s Tome of Foes)
The plane of Nessus is incredibly unique compared to the other planes of Nessus. This plane floats in a swirling crimson void that encompasses them from all directions. The plane itself is flat in its surface, devoid of trees or changes in elevation. The desolate plane, unlike any other plane of Baator, is finite in its size. It stretches 2,500 miles from east to west and 1,100 miles from north to south. The flatness of the plane leaves no place for any creature to hide.
A system of crisscrossing gorge and canyons marks the only true changes in elevation in the plane. In these gorges, canyons, and the network of caves that connect them, live the billions of devils of Nessus. These structures have an infinite amount of space even given the finite nature of the plane. These gorges and canyons often cross, forming towering plateaus.
The canyons and gorges are each distinct and travel to specific locations. However, they all look exactly alike. More importantly, most of these canyons are missing from most maps of the plane. A few maps that were drawn by suicidal or brave adventurers can be found but tend to be extremely pricey. A map of a square mile section of Nessus can easily cost as much as a small castle.
A few of these canyons have bridges that span them. These few bridges are heavily guarded by Asmodeus's elite guards and a host of traps. Rare unguarded bridges are death traps that will inevitably break and send any crosser to their death. The shallowest canyon is 200 feet deep, and the remaining canyons and gorges are usually deeper. Devils in Nessus who cannot fly are encouraged to stick close to the caves and crevasses. In emergency situations, the devils must climb the walls using some sparse handholds or frayed ropes. It is not uncommon for devils to fall to their deaths as a result.
Directions in Baator are unlike the directions of the Material Plane. The strange nature of these planes makes the standard compass rose useless. Most Archdukes simply established the standard compass as a means of travel and mapping for their own planes, arbitrarily assigning a point as north. Asmodeus however, decrees that his own castle should be the northern most point despite its central location on the plane. The strange decree further complicates maps of Nessus making navigating the plane even harder.


Nessus was the first layer of Baator to be created and was the original plane of Hell to be created when the Gods of Celestia signed the Pact Primeval. The plane was granted to Asmodeus and his ilk by the Gods so they would not have to witness the punishment rendered to mortal souls. On the plane, the devils first began their plans to corrupt mortals. It was on this original plane that these devils, still somewhat angelic in nature, worked with the Ancient Baatorians to administer their justice. The plane, bleak and barren, was slowly built up and expanded into a tiered infinite plane. The plane was rapidly built into a major factory for manufacturing more devils and harvesting divine energy from the mortal souls that the devils corrupted. The only brief delay in construction of the plane came during a short, but vicious, war between Mephistopheles, the former right hand of Asmodeus, and the Arch-Devil. After the war ended, the construction began anew and the two made amends.
When the Gods discovered that Asmodeus and his devils were luring mortals into disobedience and corruption, they once again put Asmodeus on trial. When the trial proved useless and Asmodeus was acquitted of the charges, the Gods were furious. They threw the devil back to Baator, sending him hurling from the tip of Celestia.
When Asmodeus crashed into Baator, the force of the impact tore a stretch of the initial plane and killed many of the plane's original inhabitants and mutilated many of the others who were not powerful enough to withstand the impact. As the devil continued to fall with his stretch of the original Baatorian plane, the devil carved new planes. Eight new planes formed before the devil and the plane he had rent from the original stopped falling. Asmodeus continued to fall deep into the plane till he came to rest under a massive pile of rubble, bleeding and badly hurt, in the deepest part of Nessus, which came to be known as the Pit.
When the devil eventually recovered, he made this deepest, finite plane his home as a reminder of his fall. From Nessus, the Arch-Devil slowly retook control of the remainder of Baator and resumed his lawful duties.
The creation of the plane of Nessus was not known to the mortal races for millennium. Asmodeus is a jealous guard of his plane and entrance to Nessus requires a letter of permission from the Arch-Devil himself. The first documentation of the plane of Nessus for the Prime Material Plane comes from the philosopher, Philogestes. Philogestes sold his own soul to Asmodeus for the opportunity to document information about Baator. Though, he was given permission to observe and record details about the plane of Nessus, Philogestes could not detail everything. Much of Nessus remains a mystery to those who dwell on the Material Plane.


The easiest way to travel to Nessus is to be invited by the Arch-Devil onto the plane. Very few mortals have ever received this privilege.
For those who have not received a personal invitation, the only way to enter the plane would be through the plane prior to it, Cania. From Cania, adventurers could sail along the River Styx into Nessus. This path is extremely perilous. For starters, the river is incredibly difficult to navigate. Directions in the Nine Hells are confusing. It is just as likely that sailing along the river could lead to Maladomini. Additionally, the river’s currents are unpredictable, forming whirlpools, eddies, and undertows that can challenge even the most experienced sailors. Moreover, the Styx is guarded by roaming bands of devils as well as undead which are drawn to any sources of life. The river is also known to create illusions and mirages which can mislead travelers. It would be advisable to hire a devil in Cania to act as a guide on the waters.


Nessus is different from the other layers of Baator because it has a much higher proportion of the greater devils compared with the lesser devils. The most common kind of devil that is found on Nessus is the pit fiend, though horned devils are a close second. In addition to devils, a few other creatures traverse the planes of Nessus. While hellhounds are a common beast in Nessus, a special breed of hellhound known as the Nessian hellhound roams the plane. These are far more vicious and deadly than the original hellhound. The Nessian hell-hounds form packs with the regular hellhounds and hunt the plane for intruders or lesser devils. There are a few other fiendish beasts that are not devils on Nessus, but there are no mortals who live here.
Asmodeus, a tall, red-skinned devil, with dark horns and elegant clothing is the Lord of Nessus. Known as the Dark One, the Lord of Lies, and the Prince of Evil, Asmodeus is the Arch-Devil of Baator. He rules the plane with an iron fist of law and conducts himself in a soft-spoken, articulate, and ruthlessly logically. Those who look closely at the Arch-Devil will notice that though the devil holds himself with poise and elegance, he is covered in injuries that have not healed. These injuries were sustained by Asmodeus when he was thrown from Celestia. Asmodeus carries himself in public as though the injuries no longer affect him, however they still hurt tremendously, and Asmodeus focuses much of his energy on recovering from the injuries.
Asmodeus is the undisputed master of Baator and exercises complete control over the plane. The Arch-Devil can alter any of the planes at will and can also alter the forms of any of the other Archdukes of Baator. In some cases, he can also kill the others, which causes some of the Archdukes to fear him greatly. With his dominance over Baator, Asmodeus spends much of his time focused on the conquest of other planes, especially the Prime Material Plane and Celestia. Asmodeus receives the energy from any soul collected by any devil or Duke of Baator. For the time being, He spends his time using the energy to heal his own wounds. Once his wounds have healed, Asmodeus intends to use the collected Divine Energy to forge a temporary truce with the Demons and use the truce to destroy the forces of Good once and for all.
Asmodeus is a schemer in every sense. The devil is a smooth talker who only engages with non-devils to corrupt them. One example of such a corruption is the corruption of Zariel, a celestial, into the once Archduke of Avernus. Asmodeus is one of the few devils to never father any Cambion, considering himself far superior to any such creature. A few tieflings also receive the blessing of Asmodeus. These tieflings are far more intelligent than any other and are given a superior mastery over fire. These tieflings are resistant to flames from any creature except those commanded directly by Asmodeus.
In addition to his unsurpassed intellect and charm, Asmodeus is an unmatched combatant, well-versed in both magic and weapon-craft. Asmodeus earned his fame when prior to the creation of Baator, the then-angel was ambushed by a demon invasion without his troops. The Gods sent an army of angels to defend the invasion, believing Asmodeus to have been overwhelmed. The angels arrived too late, however. Instead of finding an army of demons, the angels found that Asmodeus kept the invasion at bay and even pushed the defense into an offense into the Abyss, bolstered by their reinforcement. Though the Archdevil has not fought at the front lines of the Blood Wars, his combat prowess has not decreased.
Once a year, the Arch-Devil holds a feast at his palace in Nessus's Pit, Malsheem. To this feast, the Arch-Devil invites the other Archdukes, devils who have earned a seat of honor, and a few select mortals that have earned his respect or interest (for better or worse). The feast is an enormous affair, and the only time of the year when the pathway to the palace becomes available for creatures other than the Dukes of Nessus to traverse, though it is still heavily guarded to prevent intruders from reaching the palace. The purpose of the Feast is to serve to touch base with the dukes to ensure that Asmodeus's plans are going according to plan, to ensure Hell's superiority in the Blood War, reward devils who have performed exceptionally enough to gain the Lord of the Nine's attention, and to contract mortals who may be useful to himself. These feast feature extravagant performances, a plethora of delicious food and drink, and as much vice as any being could desire.
Adramalech is the right-hand of Asmodeus and serves as the Arch-Devil’s chancellor. His preferred form is that of an elderly human man with a gray beard. His eyes change color to reflect his mood, green when he’s happy and orange when upset and black all other times. In this form, the only features to identify him as a devil are two small, crimson horns that protrude from his head and a single forked tail. He prefers to dress in hues of green and purple.
This devil is tasked with maintaining all records regarding the Nine Hells. In this role, he constantly updates the number of souls collected, the various contracts that exist between devils and mortals, and presides over the court of Devils which settle disputes regarding contracts. Adramalech also tracks every torment caused to devils and the names and locations of any devils not in the Nine Hells. Somehow, despite this busy schedule, Adramalech also finds time to maintain an extensive spy network among the pit fiends which collect information. Adramalech stores this information and the true names of all devils in a tome he calls “The Infernal Record” which is colloquially known to mortals as the “Book of Fire”. Adramalech finds stress relief by torturing the souls of mortals in an extensive dungeon network which lies below Fortress Nessus. He especially despises Humans and Elves and takes special joy in causing them pain.
Adramalech has full authority to give orders to devils. This power was given to Adramalech because he is the only devil in the Nine Hells who shows no desire to usurp the Asmodeus. As a notably weak devil, Adramalech understands that even if he were to somehow become an Arch-Duke or Arch-Devil he would be easily overthrown. Instead, he enjoys the power and control he wields over the Nine Hells from the safety of Asmodeus’s right hand. Adramalech enjoys a small cult of followers in the Prime Material Plane who kidnap and sacrifice human and elf children to him. Because Adramalech is so physically weak, he is constantly guarded by a legion of Pit Fiends.
Phongor is the left-hand of Asmodeus and a rival of Adramalech. This devil usually resembles a human male with pink skin and eyes which glitter even in the shadows. He has oily black hair, two small twisting black horns, and red hooves for feet with a similarly colored tail.
Phongor serves as Asmodeus’s Chief Inquisitor. It is his duty to uncover secrets or to find information that Asmodeus wishes to find. Phongor is considered the most feared devil in Baator after Asmodeus because of his penchant for torture, his prowess in combat with a wickedly sharp whip, and his ability to sniff out secrets.
Phongor’s rivalry with Adramalech is because he knows that the Record Keeper does not know his true name. Adramalech frequently sends spies to try to find Phongor’s true name as it is the only one, he does not know. In response, Phongor sniffs out these spies and viciously kills them because he knows that his secret allows him to maintain an even position of power in Nessus with the Chancellor. His prowess at finding information for Asmodeus means that he holds equal value currently for the Arch-Devil. Phongor spends much of his time ensuring that Asmodeus is well informed regarding the events of every plane. To do so, he has enlisted some of Adramalech’s spies to work for him and tortures information out of other creatures as he needs.
While Adramalech and Phongor serve as Asmodeus’s right and left-hand respectively, his favorite servant is his executioner, Alastor the Grim. A horrifically scarred and broken winged pit fiend, Alastor is considered the strongest of the Pit Fiends. Rumored to be one of the first devils born from Asmodeus’s blood, Alastor the Grim does not speak or act independently of his master. He always accompanies the Arch-Devil acting as a bodyguard and as the executioner for whomever displeases Asmodeus. It is a common belief that if the Nine Hells were destroyed and Asmodeus could only save one creature other than himself, he would choose Alastor the Grim. Alastor the Grim also commands the personal armies of Asmodeus.
There are always six generals in Nessus for Asmodeus’s armies. These generals are constantly changing as the devils vie for power and control.


There are two types of notable locations on the plane of Nessus: geographical features and infernal constructions.
The first major geographical feature of Nessus is the river Styx, which enters Nessus through a hidden (and heavily guarded) location from Cania. The river reaches its lowest point in Nessus in a lake known as the “Forgotten Lake”. From here, it sinks into the plain and drips into Gehenna (an outer plane not connected to the Nine Hells).
The Forgotten Lake is rumored to be the place that beautiful memories go to die. When mortal souls are first brough to the Nine Hells, their memories are stripped from them and sent here. Here, the thoughts are broken down and destroyed. Should a creature look into the waters, they will see beautiful memories that slowly corrupt into fiendish nightmares.
Several other rivers also off shoot from the river Styx to fill the rest of Nessus. One of these, indistinguishable from the others, is the river Lethe whose waters are known to cause complete memory loss.
Several notable gorges are also spread throughout the plane. Reaper’s Canyon is Nessus’s canyon of death. Here, no injuries heal, and death finds creatures twice as quickly as elsewhere. Sicknesses and disease are far more powerful. Another canyon is known as Hell’s Lips and is the epitome of gluttony. Mortals that find themselves here may become overcome with insatiable thirst and hunger. One fissure that travels from north to south on the plane is “The Nest”, which houses hundreds of nests for fiendish wasps.
The most noticeable geographic location in Nessus is the large winding canyon that sinks deeper and deeper into the plane, The Serpent’s Pass. This canyon, carved from Asmodeus’s fall, carves to the deepest point of Nessus, which in unknown even to most devils.
At the center, and northern most point, of the plane is a large pit which houses the city of Malsheem. Built from stone and Baatorian green steel, the city stretches in multiple layers along the gorge. Over time, the ever-expanding city has slowly begun to form tunnels into the walls and floor of the pit. This large structure, designed by Asmodeus, is home to millions of devils, perhaps the strongest in the nine hells. Here, Asmodeus keeps his personal army, waiting to conquer the planes with it. At the center of the city of Malsheem is the Fortress Nessus.
Fortress Nessus sits at the deepest point of the Serpent’s Coil but rises far above the rest of the plane. Decadent and bleak, the fortress seems to be a failed recreation of the home of the Gods. Here, Asmodeus resides and rules. The fortress has not been mapped previously and seems uninhabited at all times of the day. Despite its appearance, the fortress is teeming with devils and dangers. Below the fortress is an extensive dungeon which houses the souls of humans and elves for Adramalech to torture. Fortress Nessus also houses the Infernal Records.
The last location of note for Nessus is Tabjari, which lies in Reaper Canyon. Tabjari is a copper citadel which serves as the library, vault, and armory for Asmodeus. Tabjari is nearly impossible to enter. Its entrance is a highly guarded secret. The entire structure is heavily guarded by traps, magic, and devils. The security of Tabjari is even greater than the security in Fortress Nessus because it houses Asmodeus’s greatest treasure, one of the original copies of the Pact Primeval.


There are many mysteries with the plane of Nessus for the curious adventurer to find, though at great personal risk. Many of these mysteries remain because adventurers who chose to explore the plane did not return.
The first great mystery of Nessus is how to enter the plane. Though there is an entrance via the river Styx, this passage would require that adventurers travel through the other 8 planes of Baator to find their way into Nessus. Still, this river entrance is hidden and extremely well-guarded. Finding and mapping this location would make one rich beyond definition.
Another great mystery of Nessus comes from a rumor that Asmodeus is still greatly weakened by his wounds. A common rumor within the Outer Planes is that Asmodeus’s true form lies still broken and beaten within Fortress Nessus. Many of the other Archdukes and the Demon Princes of the Abyss spend a significant amount of time trying to find out if the rumor is true (and the location of Asmodeus’s true form) with the hopes of conquering the 9 hells.
The fortress Nessus hold many other secrets, such as information about the weaknesses of the Archdukes, that could hold much value for any being that could find them.
Tabjari holds one of the original copies of the Pact Primeval, which provides the place around it with enormous power. In this place, magic is said to achieve feats that would be otherwise impossible. For this reason, its location is deeply sought. Additionally, the copy itself provides significant strength to the devils. If it were to be stolen, it would greatly turn the tide of the Blood War in favor of the Abyss.


Surviving Nessus is horrendously difficult for those that have not been personally invited by Asmodeus. Travelers should equip themselves with means of surviving some of the hottest temperatures in the planes, second perhaps only to the plane of fire. Likewise, they should equip themselves to survive frigid temperatures that exist in some of the gorges. Because Nessus is finite, it can be more easily mapped than any other planes. Perhaps a daring adventuring group would be able to find some enemy of Asmodeus who has a map of the plane. Another duke of the nine hells may have such a map and forming a pact with one may be wise for finding a way through Nessus without Asmodeus’s permission. If not, the safest way to traverse the plane would be to make some pact with the Arch-Devil.
For those who attempt to sneak onto Nessus, stealth is the best option. The plane teems with a seemingly infinite number of the deadliest devils in the nine hells. Direct confrontation with a small group will only draw more of them towards a party. Additionally, it would be wise to find some way to carry provision onto the plane because food is sparse. Nessus is also covered in a dense fog of noxious fumes which make breathing difficult. Adventurers should account for this trait and find some way to filter their breathing as needed.


Nessian Hell-Hound
Large fiend, neutral evil
Armor Class: 17 (natural armor)
Hit Points: 129 (13d10 + 52)
Speed: 50ft., fly 50ft.

CR: 10 (5,900 XP)

[+6] [+3] [+5] [-3] [+1] [+0]
Saving Throws: DEX +6, CON +8 Skills: Perception +4, Stealth +6 Damage Resistances: Cold, Fire Damage Immunities: Poison Damage Vulnerabilities: Radiant Condition Immunities: Poisoned, Sleep Senses: Darkvision 60ft., passive Perception 14 Languages: Infernal, Common
Devils Sight. Magical darkness does not impede the hell hound.
Multiattack. The hell hound makes two attacks: one with its bite and one with its claws.
Bite. Melee Weapon Attack: +9 to hit, reach 10 ft., one creature. Hit: 17 (2d10 + 6) piercing damage.
Claws. Melee Weapon Attack: +9 to hit, reach 5 ft., one creature. Hit: 13 (2d6 + 6) slashing damage.
Hellfire Breath: (Recharges 5-6). The Nessian Hell-Hound unleashes a 10 ft cone of fire that deals 40 (9d8) fire damage. Creatures caught in the cone must make a DC17 dex save, taking half damage on a successful save.
With this, I have finally finished an entry for each of the Nine Hells for the Atlas project. I started writing about the Nine Hells in 2018, five years ago. After 4 years of writing and rewriting this article, it’s finally done which is a weird feeling. Nessus was especially hard to write about because I wanted it to feel dangerous, mysterious, and hard to understand. Hopefully, this is useful to some people. Moving forward, I’m planning to update the older entries with better information.
Check out my previous entry for the Atlas of the Planes project: Cania
Write Your Own Atlas Entry!
submitted by Kami1996 to DnDBehindTheScreen [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 10:30 Tigrannes On this day in History, June 3

On this day in History, June 3
350 – The Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman emperor, entering Rome at the head of a group of gladiators.
713 – The Byzantine emperor Philippicus is blinded, deposed and sent into exile by conspirators of the Opsikion army in Thrace. He is succeeded by Anastasios II, who begins the reorganization of the Byzantine army.
1098 – After a five-month siege during the First Crusade, the Crusaders seize Antioch (today's Turkey).
1140 – The French scholar Peter Abelard is found guilty of heresy.
1326 – The Treaty of Novgorod delineates borders between Russia and Norway in Finnmark.
1539 – Hernando de Soto claims Florida for Spain.
1602 – An English naval force defeats a fleet of Spanish galleys, and captures a large Portuguese carrack at the Battle of Sesimbra Bay
1608 – Samuel de Champlain lands at Tadoussac, Quebec, in the course of his third voyage to New France, and begins erecting fortifications.[8]
1621 – The Dutch West India Company receives a charter for New Netherland.
1658 – Pope Alexander VII appoints François de Laval vicar apostolic in New France.
1665 – James Stuart, Duke of York (later to become King James II of England), defeats the Dutch fleet off the coast of Lowestoft.
1781 – Jack Jouett begins his midnight ride to warn Thomas Jefferson and the Virginia legislature of an impending raid by Banastre Tarleton.
1839 – In Humen, China, Lin Tse-hsü destroys 1.2 million kilograms of opium confiscated from British merchants, providing Britain with a casus belli to open hostilities, resulting in the First Opium War.
1844 – The last pair of great auks is killed.
1861 – American Civil War: Battle of Philippi (also called the Philippi Races): Union forces rout Confederate troops in Barbour County, Virginia, now West Virginia.
1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Cold Harbor: Union forces attack Confederate troops in Hanover County, Virginia.
1866 – The Fenians are driven out of Fort Erie, Ontario back into the United States.
1885 – In the last military engagement fought on Canadian soil, the Cree leader, Big Bear, escapes the North-West Mounted Police.
1889 – The first long-distance electric power transmission line in the United States is completed, running 14 miles (23 km) between a generator at Willamette Falls and downtown Portland, Oregon.
1916 – The National Defense Act is signed into law, increasing the size of the United States National Guard by 450,000 men.
1935 – One thousand unemployed Canadian workers board freight cars in Vancouver, beginning a protest trek to Ottawa.
1937 – The Duke of Windsor marries Wallis Simpson.
1940 – World War II: The Luftwaffe bombs Paris.
1940 – Franz Rademacher proposes plans to make Madagascar the "Jewish homeland", an idea that had first been considered by 19th century journalist Theodor Herzl.
1941 – World War II: The Wehrmacht razes the Greek village of Kandanos to the ground and murders 180 of its inhabitants.
1942 – World War II: Japan begins the Aleutian Islands Campaign by bombing Unalaska Island.
1943 – In Los Angeles, California, white U.S. Navy sailors and Marines attack Latino youths in the five-day Zoot Suit Riots.
1950 – Herzog and Lachenal of the French Annapurna expedition become the first climbers to reach the summit of an 8,000-metre peak.
1962 – At Paris Orly Airport, Air France Flight 007 overruns the runway and explodes when the crew attempts to abort takeoff, killing 130.
1963 – Soldiers of the South Vietnamese Army attack protesting Buddhists in Huế with liquid chemicals from tear-gas grenades, causing 67 people to be hospitalized for blistering of the skin and respiratory ailments.
1965 – The launch of Gemini 4, the first multi-day space mission by a NASA crew. Ed White, a crew member, performs the first American spacewalk.
1969 – Melbourne–Evans collision: off the coast of South Vietnam, the Australian aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne cuts the U.S. Navy destroyer USS Frank E. Evans in half; resulting in 74 deaths.
1973 – A Soviet supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 crashes near Goussainville, France, killing 14, the first crash of a supersonic passenger aircraft.
1979 – A blowout at the Ixtoc I oil well in the southern Gulf of Mexico causes at least 3,000,000 barrels (480,000 m3) of oil to be spilled into the waters, the second-worst accidental oil spill ever recorded.
1980 – An explosive device is detonated at the Statue of Liberty. The FBI suspects Croatian nationalists.
1980 – The 1980 Grand Island tornado outbreak hits Nebraska, causing five deaths and $300 million (equivalent to $1066 million in 2022) worth of damage.
1982 – The Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, is shot on a London street; he survives but is left paralysed.
1984 – Operation Blue Star, a military offensive, is launched by the Indian government at Harmandir Sahib, also known as the Golden Temple, the holiest shrine for Sikhs, in Amritsar. The operation continues until June 6, with casualties, most of them civilians, in excess of 5,000.
1989 – The government of China sends troops to force protesters out of Tiananmen Square after seven weeks of occupation.
1991 – Mount Unzen erupts in Kyūshū, Japan, killing 43 people, all of them either researchers or journalists.
1992 – Aboriginal land rights are recognised in Australia, overturning the long-held colonial assumption of terra nullius, in Mabo v Queensland (No 2), a case brought by Torres Strait Islander Eddie Mabo and leading to the Native Title Act 1993.
1998 – After suffering a mechanical failure, a high speed train derails at Eschede, Germany, killing 101 people.
2006 – The union of Serbia and Montenegro comes to an end with Montenegro's formal declaration of independence.
2012 – A plane carrying 153 people on board crashes in a residential neighborhood in Lagos, Nigeria, killing everyone on board and six people on the ground.
2012 – The pageant for the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II takes place on the River Thames.
2013 – The trial of United States Army private Chelsea Manning for leaking classified material to WikiLeaks begins in Fort Meade, Maryland.
2013 – At least 119 people are killed in a fire at a poultry farm in Jilin Province in northeastern China.
2015 – An explosion at a gasoline station in Accra, Ghana, kills more than 200 people.
2017 – London Bridge attack: Eight people are murdered and dozens of civilians are wounded by Islamist terrorists. Three of the attackers are shot dead by the police.
2019 – Khartoum massacre: In Sudan, over 100 people are killed when security forces accompanied by Janjaweed militiamen storm and open fire on a sit-in protest.
1943: The Battle of Attu, one of the deadliest battles in the Pacific during World War II, ends with the recapture of the island by U.S. forces from the Japanese.
American forces fought in snowy conditions, in contrast with the tropical climate in the rest of the Pacific. The more than two-week battle ended when most of the Japanese defenders were killed in brutal hand-to-hand combat after a final banzai charge broke through American lines.
submitted by Tigrannes to Historycord [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 10:11 Pretend-Long5578 Coop's professor is obviously racist, but they wrote it badly :/

Having studied some law in college I can tell you any professor would recommend that you not use slang and that you phrase things as precisely and eloquently as possible. It's so that the judge respects you professionally, the jury find you clear and mature, and your statements are VERY straightforward for the public record (and ideally as timeless as possible because that record will live way into the future).
Even the stuff about slouching, OBVIOUSLY the professor was being unfairly harsh on how she presents because he's racist, but that's definitely feedback you could get if you're giving that kind of presentation trying to learn how to conduct yourself effectively in court :/
I just feel overall they could have done a way better job with this, because even though he's not giving these criticisms to other students and doing it especially harshly to Coop, the actual feedback is fair and helpful :/ I wish they'd made it stronger cus I feel guilty agreeing with him in any way
submitted by Pretend-Long5578 to AllAmericanTV [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 10:04 Critical-Cobbler-709 Recreating Roma

Recreating Roma
I recantly started playing ck 3 and this is nu second campaign. In this campaign I'm trying to restore the roman empire and I think I'm on the right track to do so.
My borders have grown since I took this picture, so i now have controle over the banate of croatia.
submitted by Critical-Cobbler-709 to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 10:02 Pranil1231 Top Reasons Why Elan Commercial Projects in Gurgaon are Worth Investing In

Gurgaon, also known as Gurugram, is a thriving city in India that offers tremendous opportunities for businesses and investors. Among the prominent real estate developers in Gurgaon, Elan Developers have gained a reputation for delivering innovative and modern commercial projects in gurgoan. In this blog, we will explore the top reasons why investing in Elan Developers' commercial projects in Gurgaon is a wise decision for aspiring entrepreneurs and astute investors.
Prime Locations and High Footfall:
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Modern Architectural Designs:
Elan Developers' commercial projects in Gurgoan stand out with their contemporary and eye-catching architectural designs. The retail shops are designed to create an inviting and attractive environment for customers. Features like double-height shops, wide frontages, and road-facing visibility maximize the visual impact and draw attention to businesses. The innovative design elements help businesses create a unique identity and stand out in a competitive market.
Wide Range of Amenities:
Elan Developers understand the importance of providing top-notch amenities and facilities for businesses to thrive. Their commercial property for sale in gurgoan offer a plethora of amenities, including plush food courts with excellent ambiance, premium F&B outlets, high-end retail spaces, meticulously planned service apartments, and more. These amenities enhance the overall customer experience and attract a diverse range of tenants.
Professional Management and Reputation:
Elan Developers have established themselves as a reputable name in the real estate industry. With a track record of delivering high-quality commercial property for sale in gurgaon, they provide professional management services to their investors and tenants. Their expertise ensures efficient operations, maintenance, and smooth functioning of the commercial property for sale in gurgoan, allowing businesses to focus on growth and profitability.
Rental Income Potential:
Gurgaon is a rapidly growing city with a high demand for commercial property in gurgaon. Investing in Elan Developers' commercial property in gurgoan can provide a steady stream of rental income. The prime locations, modern amenities, and attractive designs make these commercial spaces highly desirable for businesses, leading to higher rental returns on investment.
Capital Appreciation:
Gurgaon's real estate market has witnessed consistent growth in property prices over the years. Investing in Elan Developers' commercial projects in Gurgaon offers the potential for capital appreciation. As the city continues to develop and attract more businesses and residents, property values are expected to rise, resulting in increased investment value over time.
Investing in Elan Developers' commercial projects in Gurgaon is a smart choice for businesses and investors looking to capitalize on the city's vibrant commercial sector. The prime locations, modern architectural designs, excellent amenities, professional management, rental income potential, and capital appreciation prospects make these projects a worthwhile investment. With Elan Developers' commitment to quality and innovation, entrepreneurs can establish their businesses in a thriving environment and investors can secure a profitable venture.
This Article is also published on
submitted by Pranil1231 to u/Pranil1231 [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 09:57 Critical-Cobbler-709 Recreating Roma

I recantly started playing ck 3 and this is nu second campaign. In this campaign I'm trying to restore the roman empire and I think I'm on the right track to do so.
My borders have grown since I took this picture, so i now have controle over the banate of croatia.
submitted by Critical-Cobbler-709 to ck3 [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 09:41 Shady-_-Shadow BS misdemeanor drug charge! Please help!

Hello, I’m in desperate need of help. Any and all advice is appreciated. Thank you!
I was pulled over for roll-stopping a stop sign just a little bit ago. The officer noticed me shaking and asked why and I told her it was bc it was a little chilly (65°) and I get nervous around authority figures. So, she asked if she could search me and the vehicle. I said yes bc in my experience being compliant has always gotten me off with just a warning and besides, all I had on me was a delta 8 cart. Big mistake. She took the cart and roadside tested it and it came back as NOT delta 8 and she slapped me with a misdemeanor drug charge. (She did not write me up for the roll-stop) I purchased the cart at a local smoke shop and they still sell the same cart. I didn’t have the original packaging so I went to the smoke shop and took a picture of the front and back of the packaging of the cart that I bought. I don’t have the receipt for it but I do have my bank statement which shows the purchase.
What can I do about this? I have court in a few days and I have no idea what I’m walking into. I’ve never been in any trouble before and I can’t afford a lawyer so I’m absolutely clueless about this. Thank you for your help.
Location: Portage County Kent Ohio
submitted by Shady-_-Shadow to legaladvice [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 09:39 Scarlet-Witch-838 Urgent Help Needed! Exposing a Convicted Sexual Predator's Fake Persona - Unmask the Truth!

Hey Reddit fam,
Not sure if this is the right subreddit, but I really need your help with a mind-boggling situation that's been keeping me up at night. There's this dude, a convicted sexual predator, who's taken social media by storm with his fake persona. He's got a massive following and portrays himself as this incredible author who penned 27 life-changing books and claims to have helped 500 prisoners while behind bars. Can you believe the audacity?
Here's the kicker: this guy is profiting off his fake "success" story and denying any evidence that proves his criminal past. I've seen countless people provide solid proof of his convictions, but he dismisses it all and keeps on with his charade.
I've tried to dig up court records from his time in Florida, where he spent a whopping 12 years in jail. Sadly, I'm outside the US and can't access those juicy details.
If any of you have the scoop on obtaining court documents or know someone who can help, please spill the beans. It's high time we exposed this con artist and shattered his fake image to pieces.
His victim was a minor, DNA evidence was presented at the court and he was found guilty of sexual battery and false imprisonment and he still has the audacity to deny.
His name is Yaser Al Bahri, dept of correction# N20535
Believe it or not he made his own Wikipedia page glorifying himself and portraying himself as the hero here:
And has his own Amazon author page where he sells his books and profits off of all of this
Please help
submitted by Scarlet-Witch-838 to RBI [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 09:38 No_Elephant_4992 What kind of deal was made? Or what should/can I do?

This might be kind of long and confusing but I’ll try to keep it short and simple, there’s a lot of other details I don’t really want to get into but I will if I have to. Someone I was friends with physically assaulted me for asking if he was messing around with my neighbor. She got him on drugs so he wasn’t (probably still isn’t) thinking right. So when he finally got arrested for it (and for stalking me) she tried to say I was ruining his life and all this other weird stuff that wasn’t true. She is doing a lot of illegal things like boosting and prostitution and probably selling drugs, she is definitely doing hard drugs. She said anything she can get in a needle she’s doing. I’m not sure what she got him on as I have left that whole situation. But during all this he called me from jail twice, I did not answer the first one it was at 4am when he was booked I’m assuming, and the second one was right after he got served the restraining order. I called the jail to tell them and I also made a report. He just got off house arrest at the beginning of April for a 4th degree felony (stolen guns I think). This time he got out after about 6 days and he was right back hanging out around the apartment complex the same night he got out which he was not allowed to do because of my restraining order. I was told to call the cops any time I see him over there so I called and I managed to get a picture. I was told to call his po about it also. So within 2 days of him being out he already got a probation violation and a restraining order violation. He is still out. He also put my address on all his court papers for his address. There is absolutely no proof he was in jail. There’s no records of him being booked or a mugshot or anything but he called me from jail so he was definitely there and I’ve been dealing with this thru courts for about 2 months. There is an informant that lives the apartments right beside where I use to live. Why would they let him out and let him stay out? Is he snitching on her? I’m honestly just so confused on how he could still be out after all the proof of him stalking me and being violent towards me. I have moved and I’m not close to them now, I just do not understand why he’s out and why there is no record of him ever being in jail for this.
submitted by No_Elephant_4992 to legaladvice [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 09:09 FilmFrench What do you think about this quote about a woman claiming she metaphysically influenced a Spurs game? Can you tell which exact game this was?

"Esther and her family were at the Spurs game the other night. Spurs are the basketball team in San Antonio and they are in the championship, it's the finals and it was the first game of the seven game series and Esther is hooked on it. So, they are at the game and the air conditioner in the stadium was not working and there are 18,000 people in there and it was hot, San Antonio. So, everyone was fanning themselves and the crowd was having a good time and they're playing the Miami Heat, which Esther blames them for the heat. So, the game is unfolding and is not really looking as good as Esther wants it look for the Spurs. She can feel the energy is down; the other team is doing better; the other is a bit ahead. Esther has seen this before, she's been watching lots of the game; she sees when the momentum starts tipping one way or the other sometimes. And so, she's sitting and she's thinking about it and she's enjoying it and she, like the other 18,000 people is fanning herself with the fan and Tracy says to her mother, as she's decided that she's going to clean up her vibration by making a list of positive aspects. 'Popovich, Coach Popovich was the coach of the year this year and we do have home court advantage and we have the best record this year.' And Esther said 'You know, Tracy, that feels like old process. Because I can feel the effort in it. Can't you? Can't you feel that it's like we're trying to talk ourselves into something? Can't you feel the strain in it?' Because, Tracy was sort of frantically going down her list of positive aspects. 'We've got to help these guys!' And Esther said 'Do you remember the video that you sent me a few days ago?' It's a about the San Antonio Spurs. Someone put it together. It's so lovely. 'Do you remember that we sat there with tears in our eyes as we felt such love for these men who've come together? Remember that? Remember how they gathering this one from this country and this one from this country and they all became a sort of family and they've got this system that they do and they all share the ball and nobody's the hotdog, nobody hogs the the ball. They're all easy to pass. They love each so much. Nobody cares who actually gets it in the basket, they just want it in the basket.' And so just with that remembering how they felt when they watched that video that brought that feeling of love forth within them as they watched it, they sat there in that feeling of love and then boom 13 points right away. Right away. Tracy looked at her mother; Esther looked at Tracy. Tracy said 'Do we dare? Do we dare be so bold as to even think that we have affected this?' And Esther said 'Of course we did! Of course we did! Look at them! They're all miserable, everybody's fanning themselves! Everybody's worried about what's going to happen!' One who's connected to the stream is more powerful than a million who are not. Find that place of unconditional love. Esther's been practicing that quite a bit lately. She's been practicing finding that place of unconditional love; it's not the easiest thing in the world to do when there are conditions all around you that are demanding your attention, but you can do it."
submitted by FilmFrench to sanantoniospurs [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 08:57 sugarhighbanana DMV took away my drivers license based on a false claim

Hi everyone, would appreciate a little bit of advice. My mother who used to reside in the US moved to another country many years ago. She is about to move back to the US, so during her recent visit, she tried to renew her drivers license that expired about 20 years ago.
When she visited the DMV, she was looking to take the written permit test to renew her license. However, the DMV informed her that she has a claim filed against her 20 years ago for lapse of consciousness. She was completely caught by surprise, not only because this is false and baseless, but also because she had been out of the country way before the claim was filed so she didn’t even know about it until DMV pulled up her records.
I was wondering what are the next steps should my mother take to get her license back. She was told by the DMV agent to fill out a health form and ask her family doctor to prove that she is fit and healthy to drive, but we don’t think that’s the way to go because why would she have to prove something that she is wrongly accused of? Wouldn’t it imply that she’s acknowledging the claim when it was simply a mistake? Anyways, I think we might need to hire a lawyer and go to court for this, but just wondering if anyone could please give us some suggestions regarding next steps and let us know your thoughts on this. It is a tricky case because this happened such a long time ago…
submitted by sugarhighbanana to legaladvice [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 08:48 eVo-R6 First OWI michigan. I’m also 19.

A few weeks ago I got arrested for my first OWI after crashing my car into the ditch. I didn’t hurt anything or anyone other than my own vehicle I wasn’t even pulled over the cop only showed up because the car was totaled. I blew a .12, recently got my ticket in the mail and it has no information really. Says “court will notify” and that’s really it. What can I expect? It’s been a very rough and emotional month to say the least. A lot was learned, note I have ZERO prior record of absolutely anything……….
Edit: Genesee County
submitted by eVo-R6 to dui [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 08:40 EmergencyAd8101 Reckless driving/ speeding ticket in GA

I recently got a speeding ticket and reckless driving ticket and was arrested on scene after I failed to realize the cop was behind me and I kept the pace. (He was hidden and took his time to come after me) As I got off the exit my car kinda drifted a bit and he caught it. I was arrested on scene.
I was doing 100 mph on a 75. What should I expect in court? Should I get a lawyer? I’m taking a defensive driving class soon, I’m doing at least 50 hours of community service before hand and I’ve already installed a beacon in my car that records all my destinations/ speed and reports back to my insurance.
submitted by EmergencyAd8101 to legaladvice [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 08:30 CultOfPcnality Will a therapist force a teenager to have therapy with their abuser? (their father)

So let's just cut to the chase. My niece is in a guardianship case, nasty one, with their original guardian, mother and father. She wants to live with her mother. Guardian has randomly chosen to back the father. My niece was in therapy and is now being moved to a NEW therapist. And this guardian said she is going to force her to have a therapy session with her father (to look good for court no doubt) who has SUBSTANTIATED CASES OF CHILD ABUSE AGAINST HIM. She does NOT want to have anything to do with him. She knows this. He knows this. The guardian knows this. Yet she says this therapist will force them to talk and called it something ridiculous like "relatianship rehabilitation therapy."
The man literally had her padlocked behind their apartment door on a third floor so she wouldn't run away. He's got abuse cases. He's got medical records that hes crazy. Shes admitted he's crazy (the guardian) but he just happens to be her cousin.
I'm finding it really hard to sit by and think a therapist would force this to happen. Would they? Would they step in? She's 15, will be 16 next month. Since she's not 18 can the guardian force this? I'm struggling to find the ethics with this. She already fears the man as it is and now she's trying to force them to communicate.
It makes me sick to my stomach.
submitted by CultOfPcnality to therapy [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 08:30 BruhEmperor Presidential Term of Thomas Custer (1889-1893) American Interflow Timeline

Presidential Term of Thomas Custer (1889-1893) American Interflow Timeline
After 12 years of trials and errors, Thomas Custer would finally rise and claim the presidency in a Post-Barnum era. With the nation being fundamentally changed in the past 8 years and with the effect of Barnum’s administration still very prevalent, like the still persistent Revelationist and Communard issues, Custer would need to uncharacteristically tread carefully to prevail in such a climate.
President Thomas Custer’s Cabinet
Vice President - Alfred A. Taylor
Secretary of State - Francis Cockrell
Secretary of the Treasury - Adlai Stevenson I
Secretary of War - John Potter Stockton
Secretary of the Navy - Arthur Sewall
Secretary of the Interior - Thomas Goode Jones
Attorney General - Jesse Root Grant II
Secretary of Sustenance - Sylvester Pennoyer
Secretary of Public Safety - Lyon G. Tyler (resigned May 1891), John R. McLean
(read about the campaigns against the radicals here) Left? Right? No, Custerite!
During his election campaign, the president promised a wide-range of groups things he would do in a future administration. Appealing to liberals, conservatives, nationalists, populists, militarists, anti-imperialists, and pro-reconciliationists, Custer would be flexible and non-partisan in his policies in order to fulfil such promises. Custer would first appeal to the anti-imperialist wing of his support by renegotiating to United States' promised port in the Congo during the Berlin Conference, crafted by Secretary Francis Cockrell, the United States would sell their land claims to the French on August 1889 for $1,250,000. The move would receive praise from anti-imperialists like Senators George Boutwell (F-MA) and Grover Cleveland (C-NY), and Representatives Edward Atkinson (C-MA) and John Wanamaker (P-PA), although opposition was brought in by some Commons and the old Barnumites like Representative William McKinley (F-OH).
Land designated for the United States (dark blue) were sold to the French Empire
Appealing to the pro-reconciliationists would be a harder feat than any of this. Ever since the end of the Civil War, stigmatism between the black and white communities in the south grew, it was further boosted by the barring policy of the Davis and Hamlin administrations which divided communities between whites and blacks to prevent violence. Forced integration was implemented by Custer with the Integration and Co-operation Act of 1889 which merged local segregated communities and forced some citizens living in those communities to live within the other group's area. Anti-reconciliationists like Senator Arthur Pue Gorman (C-MD) and Representative Benjamin Tillman (C-SC) opposed the bill, as they were elected within or with the backing of a white-only segregated community, though the pro-reconciliationists, which composed of both of the old pro and anti Barnumites, populists, salvationists, and progressives pushed the bill to pass Congress.
Capitol Building 1889
The act faced major scrutiny from both black and white anti-reconciliationists, which pushed it as dictatorial and a breach of their civil liberties. The case made it all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States in the case Jennings v. Gibbs, in which Florida county lawyer William Sherman Jennings sued Representative Thomas Van Renssalaer Gibbs (F-FL) for 'infringing on and decrying civil liberties' by his support of the act. Gibbs' lawyers sighted the act was to end possible future violence between the two groups and claimed it was for the overall wellbeing of the country and to the citizen as their move was paid for by the government itself and that it was within the government's authority to enforce such acts, while Jennings sighted the First Amendment, claiming to this act violated the right of petition the government as the citizens were more or less forced into integrating without a say. The court decided on June 10th, 1890, and sided 5-4 in favor of Gibbs, claiming that it was within the government's right to enforce such an act. Although the court did also sort of sided with Jennings, pushing that the citizens moved out of their communities must give their consent and approval of moving out. Justice Robert Roosevelt wrote the majority opinion: "It is within Congress' right to enforce such laws that they apply, although it is also important to receive the consent and approval of those being affect by the laws they apply, as without it is simple tyranny.". The Supreme Court just marked pro-reconciliation acts as constitutional.
Lawyer William Sherman Jennings and Representative Thomas Van Renssalaer Gibbs
With Custer getting the greenlight on reconciliation, he began to deal with those dissenting on his new laws. Some violence and unrest arose from anti-reconciliation protestors causing riots and clashes with the police, in one incident, an anti-reconciliation mob beat one police officer to death and threw in body in the streets. The incident shocked the nation and many demanded justice, this gave Custer the backing to enact another plan he had. In the span of June-August, thousands of anti-reconciliationist rioters were arrested and sent to 're-education facilities' to be 're-educated' about their beliefs, those re-educated would be release after a month and if they caused more dissent they would be thrown back into the facilities to be 're-educated' once again. No one exactly knows what happens in the facilities but rumors going from torture to brainwashing are common, but those released from the facilities never talk about their experience there. Although, anti-reconciliation violence has been significantly reduced ever since the program was created.
Custer's Politics for Dummies
The Presidential Cabinet has always been more or less been aligned with the president's beliefs, although in this case, with the president's beliefs all over the place, the cabinet would be quiet diverse. Some would have quite populistic beliefs like Treasury Secretary Stevenson and Sustenance Secretary Pennoyer, some would be traditionally conservative like Navy Secretary Sewall, War Secretary Stockton, and Secretary of Public Safety Tyler, and some would be considered more liberal like Secretaries Cockrell and Jones, and Attorney General Grant. This caused some division in the cabinet, with many members having different opinions on issues, like the admission of more states in the plain, with the more populistic members being for it and the conservative ones being against it. Vice President Alfred A. Taylor, who was often the most moderate within the cabinet, often had headaches due to the amount of bickering in the cabinet, privately saying, "I would rather have been the presidential cook than a member of this cabinet.". Taylor was known for serving delicious Tennessee Cornbread during cabinet meetings and public events, which were from his own recipe.
On the Congressional front, politics there too was starkly changing. The Radical People's and Christian Salvation Parties had faced a significant decline over the last election and were facing even complete dissolution. The bells did toll for the Salvationists, as on June 1, 1889, waiting for a train going from his hometown of Freeport, Illinois to Chicago, Senator Charles J. Guiteau was shot by an assailant who was connected to the Salvationists. The bullet did not puncture his heart though and he was immediately treated by doctors. The doctors, however, operated on him with unsterilized fingers and tools trying to find the bullet, and Guiteau contracted an infection which slowly weakened his health. Guiteau would pass away on June 30th, which ended a major figurehead for the Salvationists. With their main leader gone, the Salvationists and their party were now certainly going to fall, so once again they turned to the Populists to help, they proposed a merge of their parties, unlike the Visionary Alliance back in 1884, this move would be permanent. A joint Radical People's-Christian Salvation convention was called in D.C., in which they decided to form the Reformed People's Party which would incorporate both Populist and Salvationist agendas. All Salvationists and Populists would run on this party's banner starting on the 1890 midterms, causing a wave of new support of their joint movements to grow. Representatives like Jerry Simpson (RP-KA), Charles Tupper (CS-NS), and Marion Butler (RP-NC), and Senator John P. St. John (CS-KA), although notably the party leader Senator James B. Weaver (RP-IA) did not outright support the merger.
Representative Jerry Simpson and Senator John P. St. John.
Troubles also arose within the ruling party itself. With Custer's moves in office being controversial not only nation-wide but also within his own party. Many Commons were repulsed by Custer's appeal to nationalists and populists, like his push for isolationism, labor reform, free trade, and anti-gold standard policies, which saw as the reason why the current economy was entering a small recession. The Custer administration was also known as notoriously corrupt, though Custer himself was more blind to the issue than actually involved in it, it was well-known that politicians like Secretary Tyler were making backdoor deals with businessmen like J.P. Morgan and Andrew Carnegie, even personally aiding in putting down worker strikes. Representative William Kissam Vanderbilt (P-NY) even once said, "The difference between a crafty serpent and a pro-big business politician? They have heels, I suppose.". These anti-reform and anti-Custerite politicians within the Commonwealth Party were called 'Reactionaries'. The reactionaries would included members like Senators Arthur Pue Gorman and John M. Palmer (C-IL) and Representatives like John Carlisle (C-KY). The reactionaries would form a major bloc within the party, often favoring militarism and traditional values in Congress, as seen from there opposition of the pro-reconciliation bills and their support for things like the gold standard and imperialism. But also from the other side of the spectrum are the people who see Custer as not reforming enough. Although they weren't as loud as the reactionaries and still mainly accept the situation, many still want more reform coming from the high office. The groups members included the likes of Representatives Samuel M. Jones (F-OH) and Charles N. Felton (C-CA), advocating mostly for internationalism, taxes, anti-corruption measures, and tariff reduction. Though more extreme politicians like Jones would call for monopoly busting, strong regulation, and direct elections.
Senator Arthur Pue Gorman and Representative Charles N. Felton would represent two very different sides of the same party
The Freedom Party had faced its largest split since the Federalist-Freedomite split during Henry Clay’s term. After the elections of 1888, the former Anti-Barnumites had taken control of most major positions in the main Freedom Party after the Conservative Freedom Party remerged with them. Staunch Anti-Barnumites like the pragmatic Representative Thomas Brackett Reed and stanch conservative Senator William Pierce Frye (F-MA) would all head their party in Congress. The remaining former Barnumites such as Representative William McKinley sought to amend the wounds between their counterparts and began the works to begin reconciling between the factions. Though many Freedomites were unsure about reconciling with the other faction, members like McKinley, Reed, and Representative Henry Clay Evans (F-TN) were influential in eventually mending their relations by the 1890 midterms, showing a mostly fully united party. This also was partly helped by the fact that former President Phineas Taylor Barnum would call for his old party’s unification, which had some mixed reactions in the party.
The aging former President P.T. Barnum who would later die on April 1891
(read here about the Military Crisis of 1890 here)
The Military's Resolve
The government would once again refused the military extremists' demands of increased power. As such, the 700 or so extremists would attempt to storm the White House, with others were sent to seize government buildings and offices against the capitol. The D.C. police was immediately called to hold back the group and a shootout immediately ensued outside the White House. 2 hours passed as the shootout continued and both rebels and police were shot dead, the White House received significant damage due to artillery brought by the rebels, with some rebels even entering the now evacuated building. As the 3rd hour mark hit, military loyalist finally arrived at the scene, led by Harrison Gray Otis and Arthur MacArthur, the 3,000 loyalists sent engaged the rebels who were now resorting to guerilla warfare. 3 more hours would pass as the loyalists would trek to find the rebels scattered around Capitol Hill, it finally cease as the loyalists would find and capture both Jacob H. Smith and J. Franklin Bell hiding in an abandoned building, the remaining rebels would surrender in the 7th hour. Over 500 people would die in the so-called "Battle of Capitol Hill".
Government loyalist in the outskirts of D.C. looking for rebels
The affair caused a uproar across the nation, with some siding the government claiming the military was being spoiled, while some supported the rebel's calls claiming the remaining restrictions were still ruining their careers. It also divided the military more, with some siding with the loyalists and some adhering to the rebel's calls. Fears began to rise of a second Civil War due to such divisions, as some Reactionary politicians began to support the militarist cause. Immediate calls within the government were pushing for appeasement to the militarists to avoid another rebellion. Thus negotiators began to work on something to ease the stress of the military resulting in quite the controversial move.
The 16th Amendment to the United States Constitution would add 9 seats to the House of Representatives that would be designated for the military. Called the 'Military Representatives', 9 servicemen would be chosen from either branch of the military to serve as Representatives for the military's interests. The Representatives would be appointed by the president and approved by the Senate and members could be removed by the president during House elections. The amendment was ratified with astonishing speed, being ratified only two months after it was proposed on February 23, 1891 right before the 52nd Congress met on March 4th. Custer also personally backed the amendment, with others like Representative Thomas B. Reed and William Kissam Vanderbilt supporting it. The 9 Military Representatives were sworn in along with the other 349 normally elected Representatives. Despite the amendment being quickly ratified, it still faced major opposition from anti-militarists and especially the remaining Populists and Salvationists. Representative Henry Clay Evans about the amendment, "If this amendment were to pass, we would be nothing but lapdogs to the armed forces, always in fear of a military rebellion.". Senator Daniel W. Voorhees (P-IN) stated, "Giving any more powers to the military would strip our fairly elected government of independence and reason, as fear would now dominate our politics.". Speaker Alexander S. Clay (C-GA) would be ousted as Speaker by John Wanamaker after the midterms in an anti-Commonwealth vote, Clay would later state, "Was supporting the amendment to the Constitution the right action? I do not know that answer. Yet I know one thing. It was the only action there was."
Results of the 1890 House of Representatives Elections
Results of the 1890 Senate Elections
Tommy the Man
After the meltdowns of the past two years, Custer would focus in his domestic and foreign policy. Custer would continue his pro-reconciliation policies, achieving slow success across the south, with some forcefully integrated communities prospering and with some having being burnt to the ground. Both pro-labor and pro-business policies would be implemented, such as an 8-hour work day and a shorter work week, other than this, businesses would be usually deregulated and were given reigns in handling any of their practices, with businessmen such as J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, and John D. Rockefeller emerging as powerful figures nationally, with their monopolies being wide reaching.
Cartoon mocking the rise of corporations and their growing power over politics
Custer's more reformist policies would deter some of his allies against him, as the likes of Public Safety Secretary Lyon G. Tyler, who disliked Custer's rowdiness in politics in general. Tyler basically had enough went Custer vetoed many legislations that were drafted by the Commons themselves. Tyler resigned as Secretary on May 1891, being replaced by the more moderate John R. McLean. Despite being bashed for his reforms, Custer would also be criticized for his more conservative policies too. A believer in laissez-faire economics and free trade, Custer would refuse to intervene in the economy even when it entered a recession during 1890-91. Custer would often get criticized for allowing big business to skyrocket out of control with their monopolies and trusts, though he would claim his concern was only of the workers' well being. Governor Nathan Goff Jr. (P-VA) would criticize Custer's domestic policies by stating, "Protectionism, direct elections, and internationalism are core things we need in this day and age, not only in Virginia but nationally, yet the president has rejected all of them.". Custer's domestic policies would see opposition from the new reformed populists, which called the Commonwealth Party the party of 'Business, Booze, and Boors'.
Custer, despite being a self-proclaimed 'isolationist', often had interest in foreign affairs yet couldn't act on them as fearing it would deter his supporters. When war broke out in South America in December 31, 1891, when Argentina, who is run by the dictator Nicholas Levalle who recently staged a coup against the government, and Bolivia invaded Chile and Paraguay (more on in the foreign events section), Custer privately sought intervention in favor of Chile and Paraguay to preserve their democracies. Yet Congress and the general public were staunchly against any intervention in South America as they saw as another foreign war. Anti-intervention sentiment grew even further when the Empire of Brazil intervened in favor of Chile and Paraguay on April 1, 1892, their force now being called the 'Continental Alliance', causing the scale of the war to increase and the death toll to grow. Though the public opinion was firmly sympathetic to the Continental Alliance, some in government sought to aid the 'Golden Alliance' of Argentina and Bolivia, as they saw helping them as a way to control their economy and politics, though yet again the majority rejected intervention. Custer did consult his cabinet on what to do on the matter, which Secretaries Sewall and Jones were in favor of intervention, though other like Secretary Cockrell and Attorney General Grant were against it which ultimately led Custer to not intervene for the time being. The US did sell highly demanded imports to both sides of the conflict, which yielded major profit.
- Major Foreign Events -
The War Down Even More South
High inflation, corruption, and bad worker rights in Argentina caused major unrest against the government. The Revolution of Park broke out against the government then run by the conservative National Autonomist Party on July 26, 1890. The rebels captured an arms and ammunition facility in the city and began to arm themselves as government began to apprehend them. The government forces were caught off guard by the now armed rebels and were forced to retreat, the rebels then turned to the Casa Rosada and the president, the revolutionaries successfully broke through the guards and stormed the building, forcing President Manuel Celman to resign. A revolutionary junta was put in place of the government as a new larger government loyalist force was organized to recapture the capitol, which led was by General Nicholas Levalle. The loyalist force successfully defeated revolutionary resistance in the capitol and entered the Casa Rosada, the revolutionary junta was defeat although President Celman had been executed and Vice President Pellegrini had fled the city. Levalle, seeing an opportunity, declared himself emergency president, even rejecting Pellegrini when he returned to the city. Over the past months, Lavalle would style himself with dictatorial powers over the Argentine government, which only fueled his ego.
General Nicholas Levalle of Argentina
Lavalle was a man who opposed the resolve of the border dispute between Chile in Patagonia which restricted Argentina outside the Pacific Ocean. In tandem, Bolivia's Gregorio Pacheco, who succeeded his very pro-Chile predecessor, had designs on Chile after Bolivia had lost the War of the Pacific, as well as Paraguay. Lavalle had secret meetings with Pacheco regarding their plan on Chile, later including Paraguay to the discussion, many meetings later and they decided on a plan to demand land from both nations. Their militaries were built up in the coming months to prepare for the incoming conflict. On December 26, 1891, Bolivia sent an ultimatum to Chile demanding their coastal provinces lost in the War of the Pacific to be returned, Argentina would back them the next day. On the 27th, Bolivia demanded full recognition of the control of the Chaco region from Paraguay, which Argentina backed the same day. Given until the 31st to respond, the Chilean and Paraguayan governments refused to respond to the ultimatums, so on the 31st, Bolivia declared war on Chile and Bolivia, Argentina would declare war on January 2nd.
The campaigns at first favored the 'Golden Alliance' of Argentina and Bolivia, which saw advanced in the north of Chile and southern Paraguay. By February, the Golden Alliance would be nearing the Paraguayan capital of Asuncion, which worried their neighbor to the east, the Empire of Brazil. Empress Isabel I was facing a waning popularity, especially after her father abolished slavery, and the public were firmly against the Golden Alliance. Fearing Argentina's and Bolivia's victory would shatter trust in her even more, she decided to intervene. An ultimatum was sent to Argentina, dictating to end the war or face a blockade, the Argentinians ignored the order. Brazilian ships would begin a naval blockade against Argentina, but oddly some ships were ordered to go dangerously close to the Argentina coast on February 25th. As the ships grew near, the Argentine coast guard were unable to recognize the vessels and assumed they were Chilean and open fired. Despite Argentina apologizing for the incident, the affair caused enough outrage in Brazil to secure that a war was a certain. Brazil declared war on both Argentina and Bolivia on April 1st, forming the 'Continental Alliance' with Chile and Paraguay. The war would rage on from April-August as many foreign nations watched, with both sides gaining the upper hand many times and thousands dead or wounded. By August, both sides would be exhausted by war and bloodshed and needed something to tip the scales.
Empress Isabel I of Brazil
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2023.06.03 08:14 throwawaybleghnomas My husband was in a car accident and was found at fault even tough the other driver hit him

So long story short, back in 2022 my husband was driving when a truck pulled out over two lanes and slowed down in front of him causing my husband to swerve into the right lane. My husband maintained said lane and proceeded to pass the truck, but while passing the truck, the truck started to move into HIS lane and hit him. My husband was driving our tiny Honda and the guy was driving a lifted F-150. You can clearly see where he hit my husband. The police officer said they had someone review "the footage" and found my husband at fault. We tried to get the footage/pictures/officers dash cam/ recordings which HAVE TO BE GIVEN TO US and we were told that they were passed around and lost. My husband went to court and fought the ticket so will be going to state court (still don't know when that is) and we just received papers from our insurance company asking for the full liability amount or they will be coming after us for hundreds of thousands of dollars. Also, the legal documents sent by this guys lawyer, referred to my husband as a HER?!? We will be talking to a lawyer tomorrow but do you have any advice? Do we have a case? Should we just settle then hire a lawyer for the ticket, win, and then sue them? I have never been in this situation before.
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2023.06.03 07:58 shickenbarry Not returning Marriage License in IL

Hi all,
My fiancee and I were planning on getting married in DuPage county in Illinois this weekend. We lost our marriage license and we decided we actually want to wait a bit longer before getting married. The issue is when we picked up the license, the lady told us that it must be returned within 10 days of our stated date we were going to get married whether we decided to get married or not. So even unsigned, it must be returned. She said if not returned, it will be a misdemeanor and a $100 fine. Im okay with the fine but the misdemeanor sounds scary and don’t want it on our records for something silly like losing a license to get married that we aren’t even using anymore. What do we do? Has anyone heard of this? Thanks in advance.
tl;dr will I be charged with a misdemeanor for not returning my marriage license
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2023.06.03 07:56 shickenbarry Not returning Marriage License in IL

Hi all,
My fiancee and I were planning on getting married in DuPage county in Illinois this weekend. We lost our marriage license and we decided we actually want to wait a bit longer before getting married. The issue is when we picked up the license, the lady told us that it must be returned within 10 days of our stated date we were going to get married whether we decided to get married or not. So even unsigned, it must be returned. She said if not returned, it will be a misdemeanor and a $100 fine. Im okay with the fine but the misdemeanor sounds scary and don’t want it on our records for something silly like losing a license to get married that we aren’t even using anymore. What do we do? Has anyone heard of this? Thanks in advance.
tl;dr will I be charged with a misdemeanor for not returning my marriage license
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2023.06.03 07:34 AttentionExpensive16 my top 100

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