Chi 3 in 1 dryer brush

SoundsLikeMusic

2015.07.07 18:08 manapod SoundsLikeMusic

SoundsLikeMusic
[link]


2010.09.15 11:15 StoneFawkes The Sigma Chi Fraternity

In Hoc Signo Vinces A subreddit to publicly discuss the Sigma Chi International Fraternity
[link]


2019.01.29 00:42 Lukitasss Chi-Fi Talk

Chi_Fi is a community to read and publish reviews regarding IEM & TWS, which deals with a wide variety of earbuds and in-ear monitors from a variety of manufacturers mainly chifi.
[link]


2023.03.29 18:14 Heavy_Goal_8698 Lost Girl

Today 2023 I am 4 years into my recovery. I spent a lot of time covering and burying these feelings of neglect, hurt, loneliness, and hate for myself. I was addicted to crack/cocaine, I did cocaine before crack and almost hated it, it gave me the worst sinus infection and I eventually switched to meth. I was that kind of addict that could have died from the lifestyle alone. I traded my morals, self respect and care for anything I ever loved for one more hit. I failed rehab 3 times and did a little time in county. I was the only girl in county jail with the charge "prostitution." I look back now and I realize that the rehab time and all that bull shit was not for me to get better, if we are being honest if I recall one of the only reasons I went was to get out of the cold or because I had nowhere else to go. I wanted to get better but I knew deep down that I wasn't done with drugs, I admit everytime I walked into those doors of treatment my heart was not 100% on stopping drugs. I did try a few times to figure out why I turned to drugs and what was my deep core issue that I was covering up. This story explains finally why I am the way I am. Why I slept with over 20 guys by the time I was 15, including a married man. Now you can say what you want about me but I believe I was looking for love and affection. My innocence was taken from me at a very very young age and the influence I grew up around was not ideal for a kid. My mom and dad were young when they had me and now I know they got married because mom got pregnant, I think she was 19. My dad drank ALOT and he could get mentally, emotionally and physically abusive, if he got enough in him or drank whiskey. Dad has a big heart and I'm his only daughter, he is kind, generous, and a good dad.
I took a lot of time in rehab to try to uncover my issues and try to heal but I got scared and ran every time. This time was different. In 2019 I was left by a guy I depended on, we were both homeless and my stuff was in his truck. One night he decided he wasn't gonna pick me up after work and it left me no choice but to do whatever I could to survive these streets. I needed to put my ducks in a row. By the time I realized he wasn't coming it was 10pm, I needed to find a bed, food, shower maybe, and more drugs to barter with. I ran the streets for almost 2 weeks alone with no help or someone to lean on. When I met Mel, I was looking rough, I had bruises all up and down my arms and legs, I was 90lbs, I haven't eaten in a day or two, and the best part I had the clothes on my back and maybe one more outfit in my bag. I had no underwear, one bra, like no socks, it was truly ridiculous. I lost everything I ever loved and owned 2ce over. I was Finally tired, finally just done.
I met Mel in April of 2019, he was appalled when he realized how much I had lost and I still don't know what his true intentions were, maybe it was to help me or maybe it was to get in my pants, whatever it was I'm glad it happened. I got clean with Mels love and support, no rehab, no NA or AA, I was done and I knew I had to stop or I was gonna die.
These past 4 years I left state with Mel, we traveled for a bit and in this time I got to really think about what happened to me and why. It took some time for me to trust Mel and not think he was gonna leave in another state or somewhere stranded, he never did. I had nightmares, flashbacks, and bursts of anger for the first year. I really had to push through but I decided to write this story to maybe help someone that went through something similar.
I was in a relationship with a 31 yr old when I was 12-13 years old.
A little back story: When I was growing up my dad was a carefree kind and just a free spirit. He was a functional alcoholic, he would get off work and drink anywhere from a half gallon to a whole gallon of vodka a night and get up at 6am and go to work. My mom and dad got divorced when I was young so I was passed back and forth but my dads was my favorite. I was allowed to do whatever I wanted and as a teenager I took advantage of that. Dad had a lot of friends and they drank too. Dad was close to his brother and he had a few real close friends who were around everyday of my childhood for as long as I can remember. The one in particular I will never forget. I was young, I mean like maybe 7-8 when (let's call him Jim) I met Jim. He was young, good looking and had been friends with dad from work. Jim and another one of dads friends lived together so they all started hanging out at my house. I had a friend over and she was a little older that day when Jim first came to my house. She was curious about him and I don't remember much about that day but I do recall Jim laying his head on her lap while she played with his hair. She gave him those flirty eyes and they sat there and talked. Remind you even though Jim was in his late 20s and my friend was maybe 12-13 at the time. Not long after I met Jim he got into some trouble and was sent to prison for a few years.
Fast Forward>>>>>
I was 11 when I found a letter from Jim to my dad. I wasn't sure if I was even allowed to read it but I opened it up and read it anyway. I will never forget the letters that formed the word "tell wild child I said hi." I don't know why I got curious, I actually don't even know what I was thinking. I spent days thinking of the letter, I guess I was lonely, I had to have felt some type of emptiness to write him back. I was 11 writing a grown ass man in prison for pulling out a gun on some guys who robbed him. Me and Jim talked about everything, he became my best friend really quick. I don't know why but I felt comfortable talking to him and telling him things that were happening with me, my friends, my boyfriend, and my family. He talked about his wife and 2 boys, he gave advice and was just very sweet, acted like he understood me and was very genuine. I now see as an adult he was manipulating me as a child but that little girl was craving for attention. We got to know each other, we talked all the way up to the day me and my dad and my friend were with us pulled up to the house after school and there Jim was sitting on our porch, just chilling. Thats when things got confusing and fucked up. I hate telling this story. It is so hard for me to realize what he was doing to me the whole time..
I don't really wanna get into the specifics. Um.. we Got close when he got out, He touched me multiple times, and also touched my friends. He gave me a ring at one point, Jim was 31 years old and I was 13 years old. It wasn't right and I hate that it went on as long as it did. He would kiss me when my dad wasn't around and tell me he loved me. Until the night it all ended. My friend came over while Jim was there I had a boyfriend over and supposedly Jim raped her when I wasnt in the room. There were hickeys on her neck and she was partying and drinking like a rockstar when I left her. I still have no idea what happened that night we even remained friends for a long time after and she never talked about it. I confessed to her that he was doing the same shit to me as he had been touching me for almost a year. She eventually did go to the police that night and she told them about me and everything that was happening. The police charged Jim with 2 counts of sexual imposition with a minor and 1 count rape he got 6 years. I always felt so guilty for sending him to prison, I hated that I had to tell I was ashamed of what he did to me but I was a child. When Jim had 6 months left in his sentence he killed himself in prison. I still don't know if that is true, how he died but I have had to go through years of trying to accept this in my past and live life to the fullest everyday without the reminder of what Jim did to me. I still can't tell you how it affected me, I guess it did in all kinds of ways and me wanting the attention in the first place makes me wonder. Growing up with my father letting me do whatever I wanted mainly because he only had my part time and I didnt think he ever wanted to be "the bad guy". He was more of a friend to me and when he drank too much it could turn bad quick. All of it is in the past and I have tried my whole life to forgive myself for my part in his death. I wanted to tell some of my story. it goes farther than this but i needed to get it out into the world.
I want to make this clear, my dad was an addict/alcoholic. He did the best he could with what he was given, even though he was asleep during this event and many others, he was clueless but now looking back as a recovering addict that it wasn't my dads fault. We trusted this man, he was a close family friend for many many years. We never thought that he would target 3 teenage girls. I thought the man really cared about me and I believed what he told me.
Years later I changed schools my sophomore year and was in a small class with 2 girls and this geeky guy. (This was the year I found out Jim died) One of the girls, lets call her Ashley was telling our science teacher how her nephews dad was in prison and had just died, he was in the for 6 years for rape. She said that the girl lied and it was sad that her nephew had to lose his dad, she said that her Aunt Jims kids mom was distraught and in shock he could ever do the things he was accused of. I knew she was talking about me, I kept it to myself. What happened happened, I can't change a thing.
This is me moving on and not being afraid to face any fear because I faced my biggest one. I will never stop healing but I can finally move on and let go. So Goodbye Jim.
submitted by Heavy_Goal_8698 to StoriesOfReddit [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:13 --BurnerAccount Weighing two options, need opinions.

Pay is the same
Option 1: Current role at MSP. 100% remote with limited growth options.
Option 2: Job with local county. Hybrid role with 3 days on site. 1 hour commute each way mostly Highway.
County job provides better benefits so take home pay will be around $800 more a month.
I am leaning toward the county job but am I underestimating just how good fully remote is? I also drive a truck so will be spending more in gas every month.
submitted by --BurnerAccount to ITCareerQuestions [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:13 toastingdetermined Trusted Traveler Appointment Finder

I've created the Trusted Traveler Scheduler to make life a little bit easier for all of us. Check it out here: https://github.com/everettsouthwick/trusted-traveler-scheduler
What is the Trusted Traveler Scheduler?
Trusted Traveler Scheduler is an open-source Python script that automates the process of finding available appointments at your preferred enrollment center for Global Entry, NEXUS, SENTRI, and FAST. It saves you the time and effort of manually searching for appointments on the TTP website.
Features:
How to Get Started: ūüöÄ
  1. Clone the repository from GitHub: https://github.com/everettsouthwick/trusted-traveler-scheduler
  2. Follow the detailed instructions in the README file to set up the script and configure your preferences
  3. Run the script and let it do the hard work for you!
Feedback and Contributions:
I'd love to hear your feedback and suggestions to improve the Trusted Traveler Scheduler. If you're a developer and want to contribute to the project, feel free to submit a pull request or open an issue on GitHub.
submitted by toastingdetermined to GlobalEntry [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:13 Tg11T Scoot Henderson

Definitely can see Scoot in a Rockets uniform and honestly this is the player the Rockets need. Scoot at the 1, Jalen at the 2, move KPJ to the 3, Tari at the 4 and Sengun at the 5 you have a pretty interesting group of guys in Houston. Point guard of the future and you create a great dynamic front court duo with Scoot and Jalen.
submitted by Tg11T to rockets [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:13 Heavy_Goal_8698 Lost Girl

Today 2023 I am 4 years into my recovery. I spent a lot of time covering and burying these feelings of neglect, hurt, loneliness, and hate for myself. I was addicted to crack/cocaine, I did cocaine before crack and almost hated it, it gave me the worst sinus infection and I eventually switched to meth. I was that kind of addict that could have died from the lifestyle alone. I traded my morals, self respect and care for anything I ever loved for one more hit. I failed rehab 3 times and did a little time in county. I was the only girl in county jail with the charge "prostitution." I look back now and I realize that the rehab time and all that bull shit was not for me to get better, if we are being honest if I recall one of the only reasons I went was to get out of the cold or because I had nowhere else to go. I wanted to get better but I knew deep down that I wasn't done with drugs, I admit everytime I walked into those doors of treatment my heart was not 100% on stopping drugs. I did try a few times to figure out why I turned to drugs and what was my deep core issue that I was covering up. This story explains finally why I am the way I am. Why I slept with over 20 guys by the time I was 15, including a married man. Now you can say what you want about me but I believe I was looking for love and affection. My innocence was taken from me at a very very young age and the influence I grew up around was not ideal for a kid. My mom and dad were young when they had me and now I know they got married because mom got pregnant, I think she was 19. My dad drank ALOT and he could get mentally, emotionally and physically abusive, if he got enough in him or drank whiskey. Dad has a big heart and I'm his only daughter, he is kind, generous, and a good dad.
I took a lot of time in rehab to try to uncover my issues and try to heal but I got scared and ran every time. This time was different. In 2019 I was left by a guy I depended on, we were both homeless and my stuff was in his truck. One night he decided he wasn't gonna pick me up after work and it left me no choice but to do whatever I could to survive these streets. I needed to put my ducks in a row. By the time I realized he wasn't coming it was 10pm, I needed to find a bed, food, shower maybe, and more drugs to barter with. I ran the streets for almost 2 weeks alone with no help or someone to lean on. When I met Mel, I was looking rough, I had bruises all up and down my arms and legs, I was 90lbs, I haven't eaten in a day or two, and the best part I had the clothes on my back and maybe one more outfit in my bag. I had no underwear, one bra, like no socks, it was truly ridiculous. I lost everything I ever loved and owned 2ce over. I was Finally tired, finally just done.
I met Mel in April of 2019, he was appalled when he realized how much I had lost and I still don't know what his true intentions were, maybe it was to help me or maybe it was to get in my pants, whatever it was I'm glad it happened. I got clean with Mels love and support, no rehab, no NA or AA, I was done and I knew I had to stop or I was gonna die.
These past 4 years I left state with Mel, we traveled for a bit and in this time I got to really think about what happened to me and why. It took some time for me to trust Mel and not think he was gonna leave in another state or somewhere stranded, he never did. I had nightmares, flashbacks, and bursts of anger for the first year. I really had to push through but I decided to write this story to maybe help someone that went through something similar.
I was in a relationship with a 31 yr old when I was 12-13 years old.
A little back story: When I was growing up my dad was a carefree kind and just a free spirit. He was a functional alcoholic, he would get off work and drink anywhere from a half gallon to a whole gallon of vodka a night and get up at 6am and go to work. My mom and dad got divorced when I was young so I was passed back and forth but my dads was my favorite. I was allowed to do whatever I wanted and as a teenager I took advantage of that. Dad had a lot of friends and they drank too. Dad was close to his brother and he had a few real close friends who were around everyday of my childhood for as long as I can remember. The one in particular I will never forget. I was young, I mean like maybe 7-8 when (let's call him Jim) I met Jim. He was young, good looking and had been friends with dad from work. Jim and another one of dads friends lived together so they all started hanging out at my house. I had a friend over and she was a little older that day when Jim first came to my house. She was curious about him and I don't remember much about that day but I do recall Jim laying his head on her lap while she played with his hair. She gave him those flirty eyes and they sat there and talked. Remind you even though Jim was in his late 20s and my friend was maybe 12-13 at the time. Not long after I met Jim he got into some trouble and was sent to prison for a few years.
Fast Forward>>>>>
I was 11 when I found a letter from Jim to my dad. I wasn't sure if I was even allowed to read it but I opened it up and read it anyway. I will never forget the letters that formed the word "tell wild child I said hi." I don't know why I got curious, I actually don't even know what I was thinking. I spent days thinking of the letter, I guess I was lonely, I had to have felt some type of emptiness to write him back. I was 11 writing a grown ass man in prison for pulling out a gun on some guys who robbed him. Me and Jim talked about everything, he became my best friend really quick. I don't know why but I felt comfortable talking to him and telling him things that were happening with me, my friends, my boyfriend, and my family. He talked about his wife and 2 boys, he gave advice and was just very sweet, acted like he understood me and was very genuine. I now see as an adult he was manipulating me as a child but that little girl was craving for attention. We got to know each other, we talked all the way up to the day me and my dad and my friend were with us pulled up to the house after school and there Jim was sitting on our porch, just chilling. Thats when things got confusing and fucked up. I hate telling this story. It is so hard for me to realize what he was doing to me the whole time..
I don't really wanna get into the specifics. Um.. we Got close when he got out, He touched me multiple times, and also touched my friends. He gave me a ring at one point, Jim was 31 years old and I was 13 years old. It wasn't right and I hate that it went on as long as it did. He would kiss me when my dad wasn't around and tell me he loved me. Until the night it all ended. My friend came over while Jim was there I had a boyfriend over and supposedly Jim raped her when I wasnt in the room. There were hickeys on her neck and she was partying and drinking like a rockstar when I left her. I still have no idea what happened that night we even remained friends for a long time after and she never talked about it. I confessed to her that he was doing the same shit to me as he had been touching me for almost a year. She eventually did go to the police that night and she told them about me and everything that was happening. The police charged Jim with 2 counts of sexual imposition with a minor and 1 count rape he got 6 years. I always felt so guilty for sending him to prison, I hated that I had to tell I was ashamed of what he did to me but I was a child. When Jim had 6 months left in his sentence he killed himself in prison. I still don't know if that is true, how he died but I have had to go through years of trying to accept this in my past and live life to the fullest everyday without the reminder of what Jim did to me. I still can't tell you how it affected me, I guess it did in all kinds of ways and me wanting the attention in the first place makes me wonder. Growing up with my father letting me do whatever I wanted mainly because he only had my part time and I didnt think he ever wanted to be "the bad guy". He was more of a friend to me and when he drank too much it could turn bad quick. All of it is in the past and I have tried my whole life to forgive myself for my part in his death. I wanted to tell some of my story. it goes farther than this but i needed to get it out into the world.
I want to make this clear, my dad was an addict/alcoholic. He did the best he could with what he was given, even though he was asleep during this event and many others, he was clueless but now looking back as a recovering addict that it wasn't my dads fault. We trusted this man, he was a close family friend for many many years. We never thought that he would target 3 teenage girls. I thought the man really cared about me and I believed what he told me.
Years later I changed schools my sophomore year and was in a small class with 2 girls and this geeky guy. (This was the year I found out Jim died) One of the girls, lets call her Ashley was telling our science teacher how her nephews dad was in prison and had just died, he was in the for 6 years for rape. She said that the girl lied and it was sad that her nephew had to lose his dad, she said that her Aunt Jims kids mom was distraught and in shock he could ever do the things he was accused of. I knew she was talking about me, I kept it to myself. What happened happened, I can't change a thing.
This is me moving on and not being afraid to face any fear because I faced my biggest one. I will never stop healing but I can finally move on and let go. So Goodbye Jim.
submitted by Heavy_Goal_8698 to REDDITORSINRECOVERY [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:12 subredditsummarybot Your weekly /r/calgaryflames roundup for the week of March 22 - March 28

Wednesday, March 22 - Tuesday, March 28

Top videos

score comments title & link
333 23 comments That'll Duehr.
150 6 comments [Video] Backlund's 900 game milestone tribute video
108 7 comments [Video] the half second reaction time gets me everytime
95 2 comments [Highlights] 900 Games for Backs!
92 2 comments [Shitpost] Meanwhile at the Stecher Household. shitpost warning
59 21 comments [Shitpost] If this is tripping then the refs be tripping
57 14 comments [Shitpost] I think it’s safe to say Matt goes hard.
 

Game thread comments

score comment
159 Lord_Kromdor said Markstrom stood fucking tall throughout all that officiating bullshit.
147 BigDickHobbit said When Kelly Fucking Hrudley openly disagrees with your call, you done fucked up.
147 Douchenukem said Can't believe we had to score four goals to win 2-1.
136 DavyDogFr said Flames W, Jets L, Preds L. Inject the false hope into my veins baby
84 Comfortable-Ad-7158 said That'll Duehr.
82 Bigasspikachu said Poor Weegar loses out on a goal cause the linesman wanted to be a hero
75 thickestdolphin said I've always been a sharks fan. Always.
73 GrafNebelgeist said Even when we score at least 4 legit goals to their 1, it's still a one goal game for the Flames. What a season. The Flames have acquired the ultimate power of 'The Bison'. Can't be stopped now. Huge ...
72 Defiant-Gap-7595 said we're gonna win and we're gonna make playoffs
70 GrafNebelgeist said Nice win on Backlund's 900th! Walker Duehr is gonna be a fan favourite. Staying somewhat alive, I guess.
 

Top Non-shitposts

score comments title & link
557 84 comments [Jerseys] The Pride jerseys on ice. ūüŹ≥ÔłŹ‚ÄćūüĆą
401 95 comments [Jerseys] @NHLFlames: We're proud to reveal our 2023 Pride Night jersey, designed by local artist Megan Parker! We'll be wearing these amazing jerseys during warm-ups ahead of our Mar. 28 game vs. LA ūüĆą They will be signed and auctioned off in support of the CSEC Inclusion Program!
389 93 comments [News] Flames have signed Matt Coronato to an entry-level contract
389 44 comments [Hype] SIGNED!
240 68 comments [Discussion] Refs are shameless huh?
227 38 comments [Discussion] "Pretty cool seeing how Pelletier has taken Coronato under his wing. Pelts was showing him the ropes at the morning skate - making sure he understood every drill beforehand - and was constantly chatting him up"
206 16 comments [Nostalgia] Jarome Iginla Sketch Card I drew
182 104 comments Seravalli: Can anyone make sense of why an $84 million playmaker is stapled to #Flames bench with 20 secs to play in one-goal game with season on the line?
166 20 comments [Jerseys] These are ūüĒ•
154 4 comments [Hype] Pelts picking up Coronato from the airport.
 

Top Shitposts

score comments title & link
471 35 comments [Shitpost] Stecher speaks for the people
401 27 comments [Shitpost] Just a picture of an elated Troy Stecher with his first goal puck with the Flames; definitely not plotting your murder, strangling you with a bedsheet or anything like that.
259 36 comments [Shitpost] They keep giving us hope
245 3 comments [Shitpost] Excuse me while I go cry
191 4 comments [Shitpost] Not again…
155 15 comments [Shitpost] An interesting title
146 9 comments [Shitpost] Flames fans currently
140 26 comments [Shitpost] DOME. GET LOUD TONIGHT!!!!!
119 9 comments [Shitpost] Scoronato is here!
112 7 comments [Shitpost] The Flames needed someone to Lyft them to victory...
 
submitted by subredditsummarybot to CalgaryFlames [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:12 Heavy_Goal_8698 Lost Girl

Today 2023 I am 4 years into my recovery. I spent a lot of time covering and burying these feelings of neglect, hurt, loneliness, and hate for myself. I was addicted to crack/cocaine, I did cocaine before crack and almost hated it, it gave me the worst sinus infection and I eventually switched to meth. I was that kind of addict that could have died from the lifestyle alone. I traded my morals, self respect and care for anything I ever loved for one more hit. I failed rehab 3 times and did a little time in county. I was the only girl in county jail with the charge "prostitution." I look back now and I realize that the rehab time and all that bull shit was not for me to get better, if we are being honest if I recall one of the only reasons I went was to get out of the cold or because I had nowhere else to go. I wanted to get better but I knew deep down that I wasn't done with drugs, I admit everytime I walked into those doors of treatment my heart was not 100% on stopping drugs. I did try a few times to figure out why I turned to drugs and what was my deep core issue that I was covering up. This story explains finally why I am the way I am. Why I slept with over 20 guys by the time I was 15, including a married man. Now you can say what you want about me but I believe I was looking for love and affection. My innocence was taken from me at a very very young age and the influence I grew up around was not ideal for a kid. My mom and dad were young when they had me and now I know they got married because mom got pregnant, I think she was 19. My dad drank ALOT and he could get mentally, emotionally and physically abusive, if he got enough in him or drank whiskey. Dad has a big heart and I'm his only daughter, he is kind, generous, and a good dad.
I took a lot of time in rehab to try to uncover my issues and try to heal but I got scared and ran every time. This time was different. In 2019 I was left by a guy I depended on, we were both homeless and my stuff was in his truck. One night he decided he wasn't gonna pick me up after work and it left me no choice but to do whatever I could to survive these streets. I needed to put my ducks in a row. By the time I realized he wasn't coming it was 10pm, I needed to find a bed, food, shower maybe, and more drugs to barter with. I ran the streets for almost 2 weeks alone with no help or someone to lean on. When I met Mel, I was looking rough, I had bruises all up and down my arms and legs, I was 90lbs, I haven't eaten in a day or two, and the best part I had the clothes on my back and maybe one more outfit in my bag. I had no underwear, one bra, like no socks, it was truly ridiculous. I lost everything I ever loved and owned 2ce over. I was Finally tired, finally just done.
I met Mel in April of 2019, he was appalled when he realized how much I had lost and I still don't know what his true intentions were, maybe it was to help me or maybe it was to get in my pants, whatever it was I'm glad it happened. I got clean with Mels love and support, no rehab, no NA or AA, I was done and I knew I had to stop or I was gonna die.
These past 4 years I left state with Mel, we traveled for a bit and in this time I got to really think about what happened to me and why. It took some time for me to trust Mel and not think he was gonna leave in another state or somewhere stranded, he never did. I had nightmares, flashbacks, and bursts of anger for the first year. I really had to push through but I decided to write this story to maybe help someone that went through something similar.
I was in a relationship with a 31 yr old when I was 12-13 years old.
A little back story: When I was growing up my dad was a carefree kind and just a free spirit. He was a functional alcoholic, he would get off work and drink anywhere from a half gallon to a whole gallon of vodka a night and get up at 6am and go to work. My mom and dad got divorced when I was young so I was passed back and forth but my dads was my favorite. I was allowed to do whatever I wanted and as a teenager I took advantage of that. Dad had a lot of friends and they drank too. Dad was close to his brother and he had a few real close friends who were around everyday of my childhood for as long as I can remember. The one in particular I will never forget. I was young, I mean like maybe 7-8 when (let's call him Jim) I met Jim. He was young, good looking and had been friends with dad from work. Jim and another one of dads friends lived together so they all started hanging out at my house. I had a friend over and she was a little older that day when Jim first came to my house. She was curious about him and I don't remember much about that day but I do recall Jim laying his head on her lap while she played with his hair. She gave him those flirty eyes and they sat there and talked. Remind you even though Jim was in his late 20s and my friend was maybe 12-13 at the time. Not long after I met Jim he got into some trouble and was sent to prison for a few years.
Fast Forward>>>>>
I was 11 when I found a letter from Jim to my dad. I wasn't sure if I was even allowed to read it but I opened it up and read it anyway. I will never forget the letters that formed the word "tell wild child I said hi." I don't know why I got curious, I actually don't even know what I was thinking. I spent days thinking of the letter, I guess I was lonely, I had to have felt some type of emptiness to write him back. I was 11 writing a grown ass man in prison for pulling out a gun on some guys who robbed him. Me and Jim talked about everything, he became my best friend really quick. I don't know why but I felt comfortable talking to him and telling him things that were happening with me, my friends, my boyfriend, and my family. He talked about his wife and 2 boys, he gave advice and was just very sweet, acted like he understood me and was very genuine. I now see as an adult he was manipulating me as a child but that little girl was craving for attention. We got to know each other, we talked all the way up to the day me and my dad and my friend were with us pulled up to the house after school and there Jim was sitting on our porch, just chilling. Thats when things got confusing and fucked up. I hate telling this story. It is so hard for me to realize what he was doing to me the whole time..
I don't really wanna get into the specifics. Um.. we Got close when he got out, He touched me multiple times, and also touched my friends. He gave me a ring at one point, Jim was 31 years old and I was 13 years old. It wasn't right and I hate that it went on as long as it did. He would kiss me when my dad wasn't around and tell me he loved me. Until the night it all ended. My friend came over while Jim was there I had a boyfriend over and supposedly Jim raped her when I wasnt in the room. There were hickeys on her neck and she was partying and drinking like a rockstar when I left her. I still have no idea what happened that night we even remained friends for a long time after and she never talked about it. I confessed to her that he was doing the same shit to me as he had been touching me for almost a year. She eventually did go to the police that night and she told them about me and everything that was happening. The police charged Jim with 2 counts of sexual imposition with a minor and 1 count rape he got 6 years. I always felt so guilty for sending him to prison, I hated that I had to tell I was ashamed of what he did to me but I was a child. When Jim had 6 months left in his sentence he killed himself in prison. I still don't know if that is true, how he died but I have had to go through years of trying to accept this in my past and live life to the fullest everyday without the reminder of what Jim did to me. I still can't tell you how it affected me, I guess it did in all kinds of ways and me wanting the attention in the first place makes me wonder. Growing up with my father letting me do whatever I wanted mainly because he only had my part time and I didnt think he ever wanted to be "the bad guy". He was more of a friend to me and when he drank too much it could turn bad quick. All of it is in the past and I have tried my whole life to forgive myself for my part in his death. I wanted to tell some of my story. it goes farther than this but i needed to get it out into the world.
I want to make this clear, my dad was an addict/alcoholic. He did the best he could with what he was given, even though he was asleep during this event and many others, he was clueless but now looking back as a recovering addict that it wasn't my dads fault. We trusted this man, he was a close family friend for many many years. We never thought that he would target 3 teenage girls. I thought the man really cared about me and I believed what he told me.
Years later I changed schools my sophomore year and was in a small class with 2 girls and this geeky guy. (This was the year I found out Jim died) One of the girls, lets call her Ashley was telling our science teacher how her nephews dad was in prison and had just died, he was in the for 6 years for rape. She said that the girl lied and it was sad that her nephew had to lose his dad, she said that her Aunt Jims kids mom was distraught and in shock he could ever do the things he was accused of. I knew she was talking about me, I kept it to myself. What happened happened, I can't change a thing.
This is me moving on and not being afraid to face any fear because I faced my biggest one. I will never stop healing but I can finally move on and let go. So Goodbye Jim.
submitted by Heavy_Goal_8698 to recovery [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:12 Hav3n24 Making magic rules to study for the Bar Exam

So I am planning on retaking the State Bar Exam this July and I want to make an RPG to help me memorize area's of law.
I realize this might be the wrong game structure for it but I thought I'd try.
Much of the bar exam for those who do not know is memorizing the general rule of law. For example the applicant is responsible for knowing that "Assault is an intentional Act by the defendant that creates a reasonable apprehension in the plaintiff of an immediate harmful or offensive contact".
And then many exceptions based on different situations that either allow the "elements" of assault to be satisfied or exceptions that prevent the event from being an assault.
I hope that is clear.
Half of the Exam is multiple choice questions with an event or situation with a maybe one or several potential legal issues and then we get multiple choice questions about what will happen given the law that applies.(Sometimes I think these try to be "tricky" and are not as straight forward as they sound).
Another half is written essay's which usually has the following format, applicants are given a situation, a client coming to you with a problem being the most common, that the applicant is expected to write an essay about the legal issues surrounding it using the format, "Issue, Rule, Explanation, Conclusion(IRAC)" Issue is the identification of the most important legal question that needs to be answered from the situation. Rule is pulled from the applicant's memory about the relevant legal rule. Explanation is the section where the applicant must pair the relevant issues from the situation and the different "elements" or "factors" that the rule needs to apply to the situation, and giving an explanation of why or why not an issue applies to the relevant "element" or "factors" of law. The Conclusion is the easiest piece is usually just a quick sentence Z law applies because of X and Y.
Ok that was a lot.
But with that out of the way, the ideas I had was somehow treating gathering the "elements" or "factors" as components for spellcasting that is needed to cast the spell.
I'm thinking I recite it verbally I have 1:30 minutes(the time per multiple choice question) if I get it correct. I cast the spell.
If I'm wrong I take damage for that "source" so in this example we'll say criminal law. If i get 3 wrong from criminal law, I have to take a break. In order to recover he break I have to write out the rules I missed.
Just the first Idea I had. I am willing to tear it up.
I am open to any idea's including if I'm crazy and need to rethink my life.
submitted by Hav3n24 to magicbuilding [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:12 Setyman Anon is "that guy"

Anon is submitted by Setyman to greentext [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:12 Heavy_Goal_8698 Lost Girl

Today 2023 I am 4 years into my recovery. I spent a lot of time covering and burying these feelings of neglect, hurt, loneliness, and hate for myself. I was addicted to crack/cocaine, I did cocaine before crack and almost hated it, it gave me the worst sinus infection and I eventually switched to meth. I was that kind of addict that could have died from the lifestyle alone. I traded my morals, self respect and care for anything I ever loved for one more hit. I failed rehab 3 times and did a little time in county. I was the only girl in county jail with the charge "prostitution." I look back now and I realize that the rehab time and all that bull shit was not for me to get better, if we are being honest if I recall one of the only reasons I went was to get out of the cold or because I had nowhere else to go. I wanted to get better but I knew deep down that I wasn't done with drugs, I admit everytime I walked into those doors of treatment my heart was not 100% on stopping drugs. I did try a few times to figure out why I turned to drugs and what was my deep core issue that I was covering up. This story explains finally why I am the way I am. Why I slept with over 20 guys by the time I was 15, including a married man. Now you can say what you want about me but I believe I was looking for love and affection. My innocence was taken from me at a very very young age and the influence I grew up around was not ideal for a kid. My mom and dad were young when they had me and now I know they got married because mom got pregnant, I think she was 19. My dad drank ALOT and he could get mentally, emotionally and physically abusive, if he got enough in him or drank whiskey. Dad has a big heart and I'm his only daughter, he is kind, generous, and a good dad.
I took a lot of time in rehab to try to uncover my issues and try to heal but I got scared and ran every time. This time was different. In 2019 I was left by a guy I depended on, we were both homeless and my stuff was in his truck. One night he decided he wasn't gonna pick me up after work and it left me no choice but to do whatever I could to survive these streets. I needed to put my ducks in a row. By the time I realized he wasn't coming it was 10pm, I needed to find a bed, food, shower maybe, and more drugs to barter with. I ran the streets for almost 2 weeks alone with no help or someone to lean on. When I met Mel, I was looking rough, I had bruises all up and down my arms and legs, I was 90lbs, I haven't eaten in a day or two, and the best part I had the clothes on my back and maybe one more outfit in my bag. I had no underwear, one bra, like no socks, it was truly ridiculous. I lost everything I ever loved and owned 2ce over. I was Finally tired, finally just done.
I met Mel in April of 2019, he was appalled when he realized how much I had lost and I still don't know what his true intentions were, maybe it was to help me or maybe it was to get in my pants, whatever it was I'm glad it happened. I got clean with Mels love and support, no rehab, no NA or AA, I was done and I knew I had to stop or I was gonna die.
These past 4 years I left state with Mel, we traveled for a bit and in this time I got to really think about what happened to me and why. It took some time for me to trust Mel and not think he was gonna leave in another state or somewhere stranded, he never did. I had nightmares, flashbacks, and bursts of anger for the first year. I really had to push through but I decided to write this story to maybe help someone that went through something similar.
I was in a relationship with a 31 yr old when I was 12-13 years old.
A little back story: When I was growing up my dad was a carefree kind and just a free spirit. He was a functional alcoholic, he would get off work and drink anywhere from a half gallon to a whole gallon of vodka a night and get up at 6am and go to work. My mom and dad got divorced when I was young so I was passed back and forth but my dads was my favorite. I was allowed to do whatever I wanted and as a teenager I took advantage of that. Dad had a lot of friends and they drank too. Dad was close to his brother and he had a few real close friends who were around everyday of my childhood for as long as I can remember. The one in particular I will never forget. I was young, I mean like maybe 7-8 when (let's call him Jim) I met Jim. He was young, good looking and had been friends with dad from work. Jim and another one of dads friends lived together so they all started hanging out at my house. I had a friend over and she was a little older that day when Jim first came to my house. She was curious about him and I don't remember much about that day but I do recall Jim laying his head on her lap while she played with his hair. She gave him those flirty eyes and they sat there and talked. Remind you even though Jim was in his late 20s and my friend was maybe 12-13 at the time. Not long after I met Jim he got into some trouble and was sent to prison for a few years.
Fast Forward>>>>>
I was 11 when I found a letter from Jim to my dad. I wasn't sure if I was even allowed to read it but I opened it up and read it anyway. I will never forget the letters that formed the word "tell wild child I said hi." I don't know why I got curious, I actually don't even know what I was thinking. I spent days thinking of the letter, I guess I was lonely, I had to have felt some type of emptiness to write him back. I was 11 writing a grown ass man in prison for pulling out a gun on some guys who robbed him. Me and Jim talked about everything, he became my best friend really quick. I don't know why but I felt comfortable talking to him and telling him things that were happening with me, my friends, my boyfriend, and my family. He talked about his wife and 2 boys, he gave advice and was just very sweet, acted like he understood me and was very genuine. I now see as an adult he was manipulating me as a child but that little girl was craving for attention. We got to know each other, we talked all the way up to the day me and my dad and my friend were with us pulled up to the house after school and there Jim was sitting on our porch, just chilling. Thats when things got confusing and fucked up. I hate telling this story. It is so hard for me to realize what he was doing to me the whole time..
I don't really wanna get into the specifics. Um.. we Got close when he got out, He touched me multiple times, and also touched my friends. He gave me a ring at one point, Jim was 31 years old and I was 13 years old. It wasn't right and I hate that it went on as long as it did. He would kiss me when my dad wasn't around and tell me he loved me. Until the night it all ended. My friend came over while Jim was there I had a boyfriend over and supposedly Jim raped her when I wasnt in the room. There were hickeys on her neck and she was partying and drinking like a rockstar when I left her. I still have no idea what happened that night we even remained friends for a long time after and she never talked about it. I confessed to her that he was doing the same shit to me as he had been touching me for almost a year. She eventually did go to the police that night and she told them about me and everything that was happening. The police charged Jim with 2 counts of sexual imposition with a minor and 1 count rape he got 6 years. I always felt so guilty for sending him to prison, I hated that I had to tell I was ashamed of what he did to me but I was a child. When Jim had 6 months left in his sentence he killed himself in prison. I still don't know if that is true, how he died but I have had to go through years of trying to accept this in my past and live life to the fullest everyday without the reminder of what Jim did to me. I still can't tell you how it affected me, I guess it did in all kinds of ways and me wanting the attention in the first place makes me wonder. Growing up with my father letting me do whatever I wanted mainly because he only had my part time and I didnt think he ever wanted to be "the bad guy". He was more of a friend to me and when he drank too much it could turn bad quick. All of it is in the past and I have tried my whole life to forgive myself for my part in his death. I wanted to tell some of my story. it goes farther than this but i needed to get it out into the world.
I want to make this clear, my dad was an addict/alcoholic. He did the best he could with what he was given, even though he was asleep during this event and many others, he was clueless but now looking back as a recovering addict that it wasn't my dads fault. We trusted this man, he was a close family friend for many many years. We never thought that he would target 3 teenage girls. I thought the man really cared about me and I believed what he told me.
Years later I changed schools my sophomore year and was in a small class with 2 girls and this geeky guy. (This was the year I found out Jim died) One of the girls, lets call her Ashley was telling our science teacher how her nephews dad was in prison and had just died, he was in the for 6 years for rape. She said that the girl lied and it was sad that her nephew had to lose his dad, she said that her Aunt Jims kids mom was distraught and in shock he could ever do the things he was accused of. I knew she was talking about me, I kept it to myself. What happened happened, I can't change a thing.
This is me moving on and not being afraid to face any fear because I faced my biggest one. I will never stop healing but I can finally move on and let go. So Goodbye Jim.
submitted by Heavy_Goal_8698 to offmychest [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:12 Humble_Pisces Looks like I am going to lose it ūüėĒ

Looks like I am going to lose it ūüėĒ submitted by Humble_Pisces to TEMU_Official [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:11 Blockie_Builder Need a little help with the military, which is the best option out of these three?

Need a little help with the military, which is the best option out of these three? submitted by Blockie_Builder to suzerain [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:11 Heavy_Goal_8698 Lost Girl

Today 2023 I am 4 years into my recovery. I spent a lot of time covering and burying these feelings of neglect, hurt, loneliness, and hate for myself. I was addicted to crack/cocaine, I did cocaine before crack and almost hated it, it gave me the worst sinus infection and I eventually switched to meth. I was that kind of addict that could have died from the lifestyle alone. I traded my morals, self respect and care for anything I ever loved for one more hit. I failed rehab 3 times and did a little time in county. I was the only girl in county jail with the charge "prostitution." I look back now and I realize that the rehab time and all that bull shit was not for me to get better, if we are being honest if I recall one of the only reasons I went was to get out of the cold or because I had nowhere else to go. I wanted to get better but I knew deep down that I wasn't done with drugs, I admit everytime I walked into those doors of treatment my heart was not 100% on stopping drugs. I did try a few times to figure out why I turned to drugs and what was my deep core issue that I was covering up. This story explains finally why I am the way I am. Why I slept with over 20 guys by the time I was 15, including a married man. Now you can say what you want about me but I believe I was looking for love and affection. My innocence was taken from me at a very very young age and the influence I grew up around was not ideal for a kid. My mom and dad were young when they had me and now I know they got married because mom got pregnant, I think she was 19. My dad drank ALOT and he could get mentally, emotionally and physically abusive, if he got enough in him or drank whiskey. Dad has a big heart and I'm his only daughter, he is kind, generous, and a good dad.
I took a lot of time in rehab to try to uncover my issues and try to heal but I got scared and ran every time. This time was different. In 2019 I was left by a guy I depended on, we were both homeless and my stuff was in his truck. One night he decided he wasn't gonna pick me up after work and it left me no choice but to do whatever I could to survive these streets. I needed to put my ducks in a row. By the time I realized he wasn't coming it was 10pm, I needed to find a bed, food, shower maybe, and more drugs to barter with. I ran the streets for almost 2 weeks alone with no help or someone to lean on. When I met Mel, I was looking rough, I had bruises all up and down my arms and legs, I was 90lbs, I haven't eaten in a day or two, and the best part I had the clothes on my back and maybe one more outfit in my bag. I had no underwear, one bra, like no socks, it was truly ridiculous. I lost everything I ever loved and owned 2ce over. I was Finally tired, finally just done.
I met Mel in April of 2019, he was appalled when he realized how much I had lost and I still don't know what his true intentions were, maybe it was to help me or maybe it was to get in my pants, whatever it was I'm glad it happened. I got clean with Mels love and support, no rehab, no NA or AA, I was done and I knew I had to stop or I was gonna die.
These past 4 years I left state with Mel, we traveled for a bit and in this time I got to really think about what happened to me and why. It took some time for me to trust Mel and not think he was gonna leave in another state or somewhere stranded, he never did. I had nightmares, flashbacks, and bursts of anger for the first year. I really had to push through but I decided to write this story to maybe help someone that went through something similar.
I was in a relationship with a 31 yr old when I was 12-13 years old.
A little back story: When I was growing up my dad was a carefree kind and just a free spirit. He was a functional alcoholic, he would get off work and drink anywhere from a half gallon to a whole gallon of vodka a night and get up at 6am and go to work. My mom and dad got divorced when I was young so I was passed back and forth but my dads was my favorite. I was allowed to do whatever I wanted and as a teenager I took advantage of that. Dad had a lot of friends and they drank too. Dad was close to his brother and he had a few real close friends who were around everyday of my childhood for as long as I can remember. The one in particular I will never forget. I was young, I mean like maybe 7-8 when (let's call him Jim) I met Jim. He was young, good looking and had been friends with dad from work. Jim and another one of dads friends lived together so they all started hanging out at my house. I had a friend over and she was a little older that day when Jim first came to my house. She was curious about him and I don't remember much about that day but I do recall Jim laying his head on her lap while she played with his hair. She gave him those flirty eyes and they sat there and talked. Remind you even though Jim was in his late 20s and my friend was maybe 12-13 at the time. Not long after I met Jim he got into some trouble and was sent to prison for a few years.
Fast Forward>>>>>
I was 11 when I found a letter from Jim to my dad. I wasn't sure if I was even allowed to read it but I opened it up and read it anyway. I will never forget the letters that formed the word "tell wild child I said hi." I don't know why I got curious, I actually don't even know what I was thinking. I spent days thinking of the letter, I guess I was lonely, I had to have felt some type of emptiness to write him back. I was 11 writing a grown ass man in prison for pulling out a gun on some guys who robbed him. Me and Jim talked about everything, he became my best friend really quick. I don't know why but I felt comfortable talking to him and telling him things that were happening with me, my friends, my boyfriend, and my family. He talked about his wife and 2 boys, he gave advice and was just very sweet, acted like he understood me and was very genuine. I now see as an adult he was manipulating me as a child but that little girl was craving for attention. We got to know each other, we talked all the way up to the day me and my dad and my friend were with us pulled up to the house after school and there Jim was sitting on our porch, just chilling. Thats when things got confusing and fucked up. I hate telling this story. It is so hard for me to realize what he was doing to me the whole time..
I don't really wanna get into the specifics. Um.. we Got close when he got out, He touched me multiple times, and also touched my friends. He gave me a ring at one point, Jim was 31 years old and I was 13 years old. It wasn't right and I hate that it went on as long as it did. He would kiss me when my dad wasn't around and tell me he loved me. Until the night it all ended. My friend came over while Jim was there I had a boyfriend over and supposedly Jim raped her when I wasnt in the room. There were hickeys on her neck and she was partying and drinking like a rockstar when I left her. I still have no idea what happened that night we even remained friends for a long time after and she never talked about it. I confessed to her that he was doing the same shit to me as he had been touching me for almost a year. She eventually did go to the police that night and she told them about me and everything that was happening. The police charged Jim with 2 counts of sexual imposition with a minor and 1 count rape he got 6 years. I always felt so guilty for sending him to prison, I hated that I had to tell I was ashamed of what he did to me but I was a child. When Jim had 6 months left in his sentence he killed himself in prison. I still don't know if that is true, how he died but I have had to go through years of trying to accept this in my past and live life to the fullest everyday without the reminder of what Jim did to me. I still can't tell you how it affected me, I guess it did in all kinds of ways and me wanting the attention in the first place makes me wonder. Growing up with my father letting me do whatever I wanted mainly because he only had my part time and I didnt think he ever wanted to be "the bad guy". He was more of a friend to me and when he drank too much it could turn bad quick. All of it is in the past and I have tried my whole life to forgive myself for my part in his death. I wanted to tell some of my story. it goes farther than this but i needed to get it out into the world.
I want to make this clear, my dad was an addict/alcoholic. He did the best he could with what he was given, even though he was asleep during this event and many others, he was clueless but now looking back as a recovering addict that it wasn't my dads fault. We trusted this man, he was a close family friend for many many years. We never thought that he would target 3 teenage girls. I thought the man really cared about me and I believed what he told me.
Years later I changed schools my sophomore year and was in a small class with 2 girls and this geeky guy. (This was the year I found out Jim died) One of the girls, lets call her Ashley was telling our science teacher how her nephews dad was in prison and had just died, he was in the for 6 years for rape. She said that the girl lied and it was sad that her nephew had to lose his dad, she said that her Aunt Jims kids mom was distraught and in shock he could ever do the things he was accused of. I knew she was talking about me, I kept it to myself. What happened happened, I can't change a thing.
This is me moving on and not being afraid to face any fear because I faced my biggest one. I will never stop healing but I can finally move on and let go. So Goodbye Jim.
submitted by Heavy_Goal_8698 to meth [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:11 Hav3n24 Making an RPG to study for a Bar Exam

So I am planning on retaking the State Bar Exam this July and I want to make an RPG to help me memorize area's of law.
I realize this might be the wrong game structure for it but I thought I'd try.
Much of the bar exam for those who do not know is memorizing the general rule of law. For example the applicant is responsible for knowing that "Assault is an intentional Act by the defendant that creates a reasonable apprehension in the plaintiff of an immediate harmful or offensive contact".
And then many exceptions based on different situations that either allow the "elements" of assault to be satisfied or exceptions that prevent the event from being an assault.
I hope that is clear.
Half of the Exam is multiple choice questions with an event or situation with a maybe one or several potential legal issues and then we get multiple choice questions about what will happen given the law that applies.(Sometimes I think these try to be "tricky" and are not as straight forward as they sound).
Another half is written essay's which usually has the following format, applicants are given a situation, a client coming to you with a problem being the most common, that the applicant is expected to write an essay about the legal issues surrounding it using the format, "Issue, Rule, Explanation, Conclusion(IRAC)" Issue is the identification of the most important legal question that needs to be answered from the situation. Rule is pulled from the applicant's memory about the relevant legal rule. Explanation is the section where the applicant must pair the relevant issues from the situation and the different "elements" or "factors" that the rule needs to apply to the situation, and giving an explanation of why or why not an issue applies to the relevant "element" or "factors" of law. The Conclusion is the easiest piece is usually just a quick sentence Z law applies because of X and Y.
Ok that was a lot.
But with that out of the way, the ideas I had was somehow treating gathering the "elements" or "factors" as components for spellcasting that is needed to cast the spell.
I'm thinking I recite it verbally I have 1:30 minutes(the time per multiple choice question) if I get it correct. I cast the spell.
If I'm wrong I take damage for that "source" so in this example we'll say criminal law. If i get 3 wrong from criminal law, I have to take a break. In order to recover he break I have to write out the rules I missed.
Just the first Idea I had. I am willing to tear it up.
I am open to any idea's including if I'm crazy and need to rethink my life.
submitted by Hav3n24 to RPGdesign [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:11 BlindEyeBill724 O grande clichê copernicano, tradução artigo

O GRANDE CLICHÊ COPERNICANO

Bom dia pessoal,
Traduzo um artigo que julgo interessante para todos, ateus e religiosos, ‚ÄúThe great Copernican cliche‚ÄĚ \[O grande clich√™ Copernicano\], de Dennis R. Danielson. Cheguei at√© ele por acaso, estava procurando um artigo citado como refer√™ncia, ‚Äė‚ÄėGeocentrism as a Humiliation for Man,‚ÄĚ [Geocentrismo como a humilha√ß√£o da humanidade], de um grande intelectual, R√©mi Braque, que, ali√°s, t√™m uma hist√≥ria do ate√≠smo concisa e interessant√≠ssima que um dia, sobrando-me tempo e faltando-me vagabundagem, pretendo trazer aqui. √Č o tipo de artigo que eu gosto, informativo, que n√£o busca convencer, buscando aquilo que nos une enquanto buscadores da verdade e n√£o aquilo que nos separa \[nossas posi√ß√Ķes de, ora religiosos, ora ateus\].
sei que o texto j√° √© longo, mas n√£o resistirei em fazer alguns apontamentos. O caso do ‚Äúclich√™‚ÄĚ de Cop√©rnico √© sintom√°tico da perda da vis√£o simb√≥lica, que podemos rastrear at√© Galileu \[mas que, por sua vez, Galileo √©, igualmente, causa e sintoma, 1 de Abril eu come√ßo minhas f√©rias, parece mentira, e tentarei traduzir e explicitar melhor o porqu√™ disso aqui\]. √Č pressuposto, justamente por isso, que se perca a no√ß√£o real do que aconteceu (pois a mesma envolveria o conhecimento simb√≥lico), gerando a cria√ß√£o de fic√ß√Ķes que se espalharam, e isso eu acrescentaria √†s pertinentes observa√ß√Ķes de Dennis R. Danielson \[ou seja, esse clich√™ √©, justamente, uma dessas fic√ß√Ķes, surgidas pela perda da cosmovis√£o antiga, das condi√ß√Ķes de sua inteligibilidade\]. Por outro lado, como veremos no hino de Cop√©rnico, ele mesmo pode ter iniciado, sem querer, a invers√£o do eixo axiol√≥gico (quanto ao valor) da centralidade, relendo em portugu√™s noto que Dennis insinuou isso, o mesmo quanto a Kepler. De toda forma, como citei no √ļltimo post, o livro ‚Äú*The Crisis of the Religious Symbolism*‚ÄĚ, a crise do simbolismo religioso, de Jean Borella, parece-me fundamental para entender esse imbr√≥glio.
Pode-se dizer que n√£o h√° de simbolismo envolvido, que a aus√™ncia de sentido da centralidade, de qualquer forma e por si mesma, agride a vis√£o espiritual, como encontramos na f√≠sica mais recente, onde a no√ß√£o de centro n√£o faz sentido. Essa leitura tamb√©m est√° equivocada. Pois o pr√≥prio infinito se harmoniza com a vis√£o simb√≥lica, traduzo brevemente um trecho de Jean Borella no livro supracitado: ‚ÄúEm seu artigo ''L'infini pascalien'', Magnard aponta qu√£o diferentes s√£o as rea√ß√Ķes de Nicolau de Cusa e Pascal quando confrontados com a infinitude do universo. Para o cardeal, "*O universo (infinito) √© uma figura da superabund√Ęncia de Deus, que uma pessoa, onde quer que se encontre, experimenta como uma esp√©cie de j√ļbilo*" (3). "*Quando Pascal chora que 'o sil√™ncio eterno desses espa√ßos infinitos o aterroriza', ele est√° apenas expressando a sensa√ß√£o de vazio deixada pelo afastamento de Deus?*‚ÄĚ (p. 4). O motivo dessa diferen√ßa √© que Galileu e a nega√ß√£o do mundo teof√Ęnico est√£o entre eles. N√≥s n√£o achamos que Pascal est√° expressando seu sentimento pessoal aqui, mas a de qualquer pessoa ciente de as consequ√™ncias cosmol√≥gicas da revolu√ß√£o galil√©ia: cf. infra, 85-86, nn 1, 3.‚ÄĚ
De toda forma, digress√Ķes a parte, a situa√ß√£o que nos encontramos [ateus e religiosos] n√£o √© a de dois logicistas analisando a l√≥gica de um argumento onde ambos, compartilhando das mesmas premissas, buscam formaliz√°-lo perfeitamente, como se tratassem da mesma ci√™ncia, como se fossem dois f√≠sicos lidando com uma quest√£o t√©cnica. Mas √©, ao contr√°rio, uma situa√ß√£o cujo modelo mais exato seria etnol√≥gico, como o encontro e o di√°logo de duas cosmovis√Ķes, duas culturas, que s√£o diversas, falam duas linguagens, lidando com significados diversos. Como se um bi√≥logo tentasse conversar com um f√≠sico qu√Ęntico, ou um grego antigo com um sertanejo.
A l√≥gica, e aqui creio que muitos se equivocam, n√£o √© um ponto arquim√©dico de compara√ß√£o, antes, se fundamenta [a l√≥gica] em premissas intuitivas que, por sua pr√≥pria natureza, s√£o indemonstr√°veis, pois sempre chegar√° um momento em que diremos, ‚Äúisso √© assim, pois simplesmente √© assim‚ÄĚ [que s√£o as premissas, os princ√≠pios primeiros, indemonstr√°veis]. A l√≥gica se sustenta nas premissas, elas mesmas indemonstr√°veis, muitas vezes as premissas se sustentam em fic√ß√Ķes, a quest√£o da intelig√™ncia √©, intuitivamente, criticar as fic√ß√Ķes, aprendendo a realidade das premissas e, ap√≥s, refletir, formalizar o discurso.
Essa vis√£o epistemol√≥gica [sobre o conhecimento] √©, de certa forma, uma psicologia da suspeita, n√£o sem uma dose salutar de ceticismo [quem me acompanha sabe como ressalto as fic√ß√Ķes, as autointerpreta√ß√Ķes, como nocivas e, mesmo assim, hegem√īnicas, tanto no lado dos ateus, tanto no dos religiosos] e, ao mesmo tempo, privilegio a intui√ß√£o, o que √© t√≠pico da cosmovis√£o cl√°ssica.
√Č necess√°rio, portanto, n√£o discuss√£o ou formalismo l√≥gico, mas justi√ßa e, para realizar a compara√ß√£o, a pr√≥pria intui√ß√£o, abertura para essa outra realidade, mesmo que a achemos consistir, meramente, em fic√ß√Ķes culturais (caso seja uma ilus√£o a cosmovis√£o tradicional e as religi√Ķes). A justi√ßa se relaciona ao n√£o falseamento da outra posi√ß√£o e o reconhecimento da oculta√ß√£o/revela√ß√£o de Deus, ou seja, a dificuldade intr√≠nseca de sua apreens√£o para a humanidade (o que os religiosos devem admitir, n√£o √© f√°cil conhecer Deus). Ser justo, por√©m, n√£o √© tratar igualmente ambas as vis√Ķes (a antiga e a moderna), de fato, cada um julga sua cosmovis√£o superior, e dar √† cada um o que lhe cabe √© a dificuldade pr√≥pria da justi√ßa.
A l√≥gica, assim como a ci√™ncia emp√≠rica, n√£o prova ‚Äúde uma vez por todas‚ÄĚ [e n√£o √© necess√°rio ser um grande historiador da ci√™ncia, da filosofia ou da l√≥gica para perceb√™-lo, ali√°s, n√£o existe nenhuma prova ‚Äúde uma vez por todas‚ÄĚ fora da apreens√£o vital e concreta de cada indiv√≠duo em busca da verdade], mas, s√£o as ci√™ncias emp√≠ricas e a l√≥gica instrumentos formais/heur√≠sticos, de descoberta e interpreta√ß√£o, essa √© a estrutura delas enquanto m√©todo [o que ‚Äúprova‚ÄĚ, se quisermos dizer assim, √© a apreens√£o intuitiva de uma autoevid√™ncia que a l√≥gica torna explicita, mas que, mesmo assim, as pessoas podem encontrar argumentos para duvidarem, a intui√ß√£o √© o esp√≠rito do que, na l√≥gica, √© a letra morta, parafraseando o texto b√≠blico]. Ent√£o, por que discutimos utilizando-se de duas coisas que, em si mesmas, n√£o possuem essa natureza definitiva? [pois sempre discutimos em torno da ci√™ncia e da l√≥gica].
Tudo, ent√£o, est√° invertido, ao inv√©s de aprendermos a outra cosmovis√£o, entendermos suas premissas, aquilo que ela quer dizer, para depois formalizar, o que pode ser feito de diversas formas diferentes, por diversas linhas argumentativas [de fato, √© uma fal√°cia dizer que algo est√° errado porque uma determinada formula√ß√£o √© il√≥gica ou falaciosa, o que se espera √© que uma verdade possua alguma formula√ß√£o l√≥gica, mas n√£o √© necess√°rio que a pessoa a conhe√ßa, e nem toda verdade possui essa formula√ß√£o, a depender de como pensamos as premissas, que, por defini√ß√£o, n√£o s√£o formul√°veis]. Mas n√£o, buscam primeiro um ARGUMENTO IRREFUT√ĀVEL para, supostamente, depois come√ßarem a estudar a cosmovis√£o e a premissa do outro, mas isso √© estritamente imposs√≠vel, e a raz√£o √© simples, pois justamente as premissas s√£o diferentes, e jamais ser√° considerado um argumento irrefut√°vel e, igualmente, n√£o sendo movidos por argumentos tais, jamais estudar√£o a outra vis√£o, a √ļnica coisa que permitiria que fossemos justos na avalia√ß√£o. Enfim, a mania de ser l√≥gico √©, √†s vezes, simplesmente um costume b√°rbaro para ignorar, √© uma medida sanit√°ria.
Bem, falei demais. Espero que o artigo traga algo de interessante para alguém. Um grande abraço. [Não traduzi as referências por preguiça, o texto com as referências pode ser encontrado em https://pt.scribd.com/document/374829717/76333308-The-Great-Copernican-Cliche-Daniel-Son-2001-pdf]

O GRANDE CLICHÊ COPERNICANO

Por Dennis R. Danielson

Departamento de Inglês, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canadá (Recebido em 20 de março de 2001; aceito em 11 de abril de 2001)
RESUMO: Por mais de tr√™s s√©culos, cientistas, historiadores e divulgadores da ci√™ncia t√™m repetido a afirma√ß√£o de que Cop√©rnico ‚Äúdestronou‚ÄĚ a Terra de sua posi√ß√£o central ‚Äúprivilegiada‚ÄĚ no universo. No entanto, uma pesquisa da filosofia natural pr√©-copernicana (que via a Terra como localizada em uma fossa c√≥smica) e do pr√≥prio relato dos copernicanos sobre o significado axiol√≥gico da nova astronomia helioc√™ntrica (que exaltava a terra √† dan√ßa das estrelas) demonstra que o clich√™ sobre o "rebaixamento" da Terra √© injustificado e deve ser descartado. ¬© 2001 Associa√ß√£o Americana de Professores de F√≠sica.
u/DOI: 10.1119/1.1379734#

I. INTRODUÇÃO: A NECESSIDADE DO TRABALHO DE ZELADORIA

A principal preocupa√ß√£o deste artigo √© o tipo de coisa que acontece com alguma teoria f√≠sica perfeitamente boa quando ela √© interpretada, seja por especialistas ou por divulgadores, de maneira pouco rigorosa ou desinformada para significar algo que n√£o significa. Um exemplo familiar desse fen√īmeno √© como a teoria da relatividade einsteiniana √© aproveitada por aqueles que desejam, em qualquer dom√≠nio - moral, psicol√≥gico ou mesmo f√≠sico - apoiar a afirma√ß√£o de que "tudo √© relativo". Richard Feynman, para mencionar apenas um exemplo estelar, lidou de forma seca e decisiva com o que ele chama de "fil√≥sofos de coquet√©is", que promovem essa interpreta√ß√£o da relatividade. N√£o h√° "nada mais profundo na maior parte da filosofia que se diz ter vindo da teoria da relatividade", afirma Feynman, "do que a observa√ß√£o de que 'uma pessoa parece diferente de frente e de costas;''' por√©m, de fato, no que diz respeito √† f√≠sica, ''n√£o √© verdade que 'tudo √© relativo.'''[1]
De maneira semelhante, gostaria de convidar ao escrut√≠nio ‚ÄĒ e, em √ļltima an√°lise, √† rejei√ß√£o ‚ÄĒ do que argumentarei ser uma interpreta√ß√£o n√£o trivialmente err√īnea de outro desenvolvimento muito anterior na f√≠sica e na cosmologia: a revolu√ß√£o copernicana. Ao faz√™-lo, tentarei, em minha fun√ß√£o de historiador intelectual, realizar um pouco de trabalho de zeladoria que, espero, possa ser √ļtil para a comunidade de f√≠sicos e outros. Resumindo, tentarei come√ßar a varrer o que chamo de o grande clich√™ copernicano, que por um bom n√ļmero de anos, at√© s√©culos, tem obstru√≠do nossa compreens√£o da hist√≥ria da astronomia e da hist√≥ria em geral.

Em sua forma mais popular, a alega√ß√£o err√īnea que desejo enfrentar frequentemente aparece lado a lado com outra que mencionarei apenas de passagem, e apenas com refer√™ncia √† sua express√£o al√©m dos c√≠rculos cient√≠ficos. No filme de fic√ß√£o cient√≠fica de Hollywood de 1997 chamado ‚ÄúHomens de Preto‚ÄĚ, o personagem principal, Agente Kay, que est√° liderando a tentativa da humanidade de se defender contra "a esc√≥ria do universo", a certa altura tenta mapear o progresso humano declarando que H√° 500 anos, todos pensavam (1) que a Terra era plana e (2) que √©ramos o centro do universo.

A primeira dessas duas afirma√ß√Ķes √© realmente muito f√°cil de descartar - pace George e Ira Gershwin, que escreveram, em uma can√ß√£o popular, "Eles todos riram de Crist√≥v√£o Colombo / Quando ele disse que o mundo era redondo". N√£o duvido que alguns dos contempor√Ęneos de Colombo possam ter pensado que a Terra era plana. Por outro lado, eu apostaria que, em um raio de 10 milhas de onde voc√™ mora, voc√™ poderia encontrar algu√©m que acredita em uma Terra plana at√© hoje. Se estivermos comparando pessoas educadas com pessoas educadas, no entanto, podemos mostrar prontamente como Arist√≥teles no quarto s√©culo a.C. ensinou que a Terra √© esf√©rica, e como Erat√≥stenes no in√≠cio do s√©culo II a.C. desenvolveu um m√©todo para calcular, com bastante precis√£o, a circunfer√™ncia da Terra esf√©rica.(2)

Mas aquela segunda afirma√ß√£o do agente Kay em ‚ÄúHomens de Preto‚ÄĚ, aquela sobre n√≥s n√£o sermos mais "o centro do universo", levar√° um pouco mais de esfor√ßo para colocar na lixeira - e um pouco mais de tempo - simplesmente porque ainda est√° t√£o firmemente apegado a formas comuns, respeit√°veis ‚Äč‚Äče at√© reputadas como cient√≠ficas de pensar sobre a hist√≥ria da astronomia.

Permita-me um momento de reflex√£o: quantas vezes voc√™ j√° ouviu ou leu que Cop√©rnico destronou a humanidade removendo a Terra do centro do universo? √Č uma afirma√ß√£o que se ouve n√£o apenas nos filmes B de Hollywood, mas tamb√©m de fontes mais respeit√°veis ‚Äč‚Äčcientificamente. A maioria dos textos de ci√™ncias do ensino m√©dio parece dizer isso, assim como muitos programas de estudos de "Astronomia 101" de n√≠vel universit√°rio. Qualquer um que escreva sobre a hist√≥ria da ci√™ncia parece obrigado a diz√™-lo, incluindo cientistas proeminentes que interpretam com autoridade essa hist√≥ria para um p√ļblico mais amplo. Em 1973, em uma s√©rie de palestras p√ļblicas marcando o 500¬ļ anivers√°rio do nascimento de Cop√©rnico, Theodosius Dobzhansky declarou que, com Cop√©rnico, a Terra foi "destronada de sua suposta centralidade e preemin√™ncia".(4) Talvez a mais famosa de todos, Carl Sagan descreveu o copernicanismo como o primeiro de uma s√©rie de "Grandes Rebaixamentos ... entregues ao orgulho humano". E a mesma afirma√ß√£o geral continua a ser repetida ano a ano, seja em relatos populares ou nos escritos dos cientistas mais eruditos, como, por exemplo, no pronunciamento do astr√īnomo real da Gr√£-Bretanha, Sir Martin Rees: ‚ÄúFaz mais de 400 anos desde que Cop√©rnico destronou a Terra da posi√ß√£o privilegiada que a cosmologia de Ptolomeu lhe conferia‚ÄĚ. A Astronomical Society foi convidada a nomear uma lista dos "dez melhores" triunfos astron√īmicos do mil√™nio - e colocada em 3¬ļ lugar o seguinte:
N√£o somos o centro do SISTEMA SOLAR (Copernicus, 1500) ... UNIVERSO (Digges, 1576) (7)
Para completar esta amostragem variada, compartilho algo que me causou particular consterna√ß√£o. Em outubro de 2000, a Sky & Telescope publicou uma resenha de minha pr√≥pria antologia, The Book of the Cosmos. A resenha foi ilustrada com o famoso diagrama helioc√™ntrico do ‚ÄúDe revolutionibus orbium caelestium‚ÄĚ de Cop√©rnico, acompanhado de uma legenda fornecida pelos editores da revista. Cop√©rnico, afirmava a legenda (em parte ecoando Sagan), ‚Äúfoi o primeiro a empurrar a humanidade para fora de seu pedestal de ser o centro do universo‚ÄĚ. ‚ÄúTal rebaixamento celestial n√£o caiu bem nos c√≠rculos religiosos.''(8)
Meu prop√≥sito ao citar todos esses exemplos - de pessoas que tenho em alta considera√ß√£o - √© ilustrar a difus√£o absoluta do grande clich√™ copernicano, que tem sido repetido com tanta frequ√™ncia e por vozes t√£o respeit√°veis ‚Äč‚Äčque agora √© praticamente uma parte da mob√≠lia mental de todos. Essa, √© claro, √© a natureza de um clich√™: √© uma afirma√ß√£o cuja pr√≥pria frequ√™ncia de repeti√ß√£o resulta, independentemente de sua veracidade ou falsidade, em ser repetida mais uma vez. Como esta defini√ß√£o admite, nem todos os clich√™s s√£o necessariamente falsos. No entanto, minha tarefa de zelador aqui √© tentar eliminar um clich√™ que √© falso - e, acredito, prejudicial. O trabalho se dividir√° em tr√™s momentos principais: [1] uma explica√ß√£o da natureza, termos e suposi√ß√Ķes do pr√≥prio clich√™; [2] um exame de algumas das caracter√≠sticas da f√≠sica e da cosmologia pr√©-copernicanas, com ilustra√ß√Ķes de como elas foram deturpadas ou mal compreendidas; e [3] uma vis√£o geral de como a concep√ß√£o dos pr√≥prios copernicanos sobre suas realiza√ß√Ķes vai contra as interpreta√ß√Ķes mais modernas do significado do copernicanismo. Estes ser√£o seguidos por novas reflex√Ķes sobre a origem e o futuro do clich√™. Minha suposi√ß√£o ao tentar essas tarefas √© que, se f√≠sicos e astr√īnomos profissionais puderem ser alertados sobre a fal√°cia do clich√™, ent√£o, os seus dias podem estar contados.

II. A NATUREZA DO CLICHÊ

O grande clichê copernicano tem como premissa uma equação acrítica de geocentrismo com antropocentrismo. Presume-se que, ao retirar a terra de uma localização física e geometricamente central no universo, Copérnico removeu a humanidade (anthropos), habitante desta terra, de seu lugar metafisicamente central no cosmos.
Seremos auxiliados na observa√ß√£o da distin√ß√£o entre geocentrismo e antropocentrismo se tamb√©m distinguirmos cuidadosamente entre um sentido literal e outro figurativo. Por exemplo, j√° estamos falando figurativamente quando dizemos que Cop√©rnico removeu a Terra do centro do universo ‚Äď pois, literalmente, a Terra n√£o estava l√° para come√ßar e, seja qual for a localiza√ß√£o da Terra, Cop√©rnico n√£o a moveu de fato! Em alguns aspectos, √© claro, esse tropo √© inocente o suficiente e n√£o estou contestando, em princ√≠pio, a linguagem figurada. Mas, como tentarei mostrar em breve, corremos o risco de uma confus√£o s√©ria, a menos que tenhamos cuidado ao passar do literal para o figurativo. Geocentrismo √© principalmente um termo de denota√ß√£o literal: a cosmologia de Ptolomeu √© chamada de geoc√™ntrica porque ele pensava que a Terra ficava literalmente, geometricamente, no centro ou no centro. Mas o antropocentrismo ‚Äď como o etnocentrismo e o eurocentrismo ‚Äď √© um termo cuja denota√ß√£o prim√°ria √© figurativa e axiol√≥gica: chamar um americano de euroc√™ntrico √© dizer que seu sistema de valores √© culturalmente ‚Äúcentrado‚ÄĚ no da Europa (o que quer que isso possa significar). A primeira vez que visitei Londres, Inglaterra, fui guiado por um londrino orgulhoso que me mostrou Piccadilly Circus e anunciou: ''E esse √© o centro do universo.'' Ele estava, com plena consci√™ncia, falando figurativamente, e estava fazendo, talvez com um toque de autoironia, uma afirma√ß√£o sobre a import√Ęncia do lugar.
Agora, ao sublinhar essa distin√ß√£o, √© claro que n√£o estou negando que um geocentrista tamb√©m possa ser um antropocentrista. Estou simplesmente fazendo o ponto preliminar crucial de que os significados literais e figurativos n√£o coincidem necessariamente, e que uma compreens√£o cr√≠tica da hist√≥ria do geocentrismo, bem como da rejei√ß√£o do geocentrismo, deve come√ßar observando a diferen√ßa. Em um est√°gio subsequente de meu argumento, apoiarei a afirma√ß√£o adicional de que, para a maioria das autoridades filos√≥ficas e astron√īmicas pr√©-copernicanas, o geocentrismo de fato n√£o implicava e nem mesmo acompanhava reivindica√ß√Ķes sobre a import√Ęncia preeminente da Terra ou da humanidade.
Em suma, a grande preponder√Ęncia de evid√™ncias que examinei sugere que a equa√ß√£o do geocentrismo pr√© e anticopernicano com o antropocentrismo, apesar da frequ√™ncia com que continua a ser reafirmada, √© hist√≥rica, filos√≥fica e cientificamente insustent√°vel. N√£o h√°, nem jamais houve no desenrolar do copernicanismo, qualquer correla√ß√£o necess√°ria entre centralidade literal, geom√©trica e ''centralidade'' no sentido figurado de ''import√Ęncia'' ou ''proemin√™ncia''. A afirma√ß√£o de um n√£o implica a afirma√ß√£o do outro, nem a nega√ß√£o de um implica a nega√ß√£o do outro.

III. A F√ćSICA DE ARIST√ďTELES E O SIGNIFICADO DA LOCALIZA√á√ÉO DA TERRA

Antes de nos voltarmos para Cop√©rnico e seus herdeiros imediatos, vamos revisar brevemente algumas das suposi√ß√Ķes sobre as quais repousava a cosmologia ptolomaica e pr√©-copernicana. Uma olhada em um aspecto da f√≠sica aristot√©lica nos levar√° imediatamente a outra distin√ß√£o que os int√©rpretes modernos muitas vezes n√£o conseguem observar.
J√° ilustrei da Sky & Telescope e do H.A.D. Not√≠cias de como tendemos a descartar a preposi√ß√£o ‚Äė‚Äėno‚Äô‚Äô ou ‚Äė‚Äėpara‚ÄĚ‚Äô ao descrever o geocentrismo: Dizemos, ‚Äė‚Äėpara Ptolomeu, a terra era o centro do universo.‚Äô‚Äô N√£o estou apenas dividindo os cabelos aqui [NOTA DO TRADUTOR: fazer distin√ß√Ķes desnecess√°rias entre as coisas quando as diferen√ßas entre elas s√£o t√£o pequenas que n√£o s√£o importantes]. Tecnicamente, Arist√≥teles e Ptolomeu n√£o acreditavam que a Terra ‚Äúera o centro do universo‚ÄĚ. Em vez disso, o universo tinha um ponto central; e a terra (por acidente, como Arist√≥teles poderia ter dito, se ele falasse latim) estava localizada de tal forma que seu ponto central coincidia com o ponto central do universo. √Č bastante compreens√≠vel que ignoremos essa distin√ß√£o ou sintamos que ela √© meramente trivial, dada a nossa tend√™ncia de ler Newton de volta √† f√≠sica pr√©-newtoniana. Para Newton ‚Äď e tamb√©m, indiretamente, para Einstein ‚Äď √© a terra, a massa, que atrai os objetos para o seu pr√≥prio centro. Mas, para Arist√≥teles, a tend√™ncia das coisas pesadas a cair n√£o resultava da localiza√ß√£o de uma certa massa, mas sim da influ√™ncia da pr√≥pria localiza√ß√£o, neste caso a localiza√ß√£o central - e n√£o quero dizer o centro da terra como tal, mas o centro, ponto. √Č esse lugar central em si, n√£o um corpo maci√ßo, que atrai coisas pesadas para si. Como diz Arist√≥teles no Livro 4 da F√≠sica, o pr√≥prio lugar ''exerce uma certa influ√™ncia.''(11) E √© apenas o facto de a terra ser composta pelo elemento mais pesado (sendo a terra mais pesada que os outros tr√™s: √°gua, ar , e fogo, nessa ordem) que explica por que o corpo em que vivemos est√° im√≥vel no centro do universo. Nesse sentido, portanto, muito estritamente falando, n√£o dever√≠amos nem mesmo chamar a cosmologia aristot√©lica/ptolomaica de "geoc√™ntrica", mas algo como "centroc√™ntrico", embora eu n√£o tenha grandes expectativas de que esse termo pegue.
A explica√ß√£o literal e f√≠sica de Arist√≥teles de por que a Terra est√° no centro do universo tem consequ√™ncias profundas, consequ√™ncias que quase uniformemente v√£o contra as interpreta√ß√Ķes impl√≠citas no grande clich√™ copernicano, conforme foi disseminado ao longo das hist√≥rias da cosmologia ocidental desde o final do s√©culo XVII. Na maioria das interpreta√ß√Ķes medievais da cosmologia de Arist√≥teles e Ptolomeu, a posi√ß√£o da Terra no centro do universo era tomada como evid√™ncia n√£o de sua import√Ęncia, mas (para usar um termo ainda em circula√ß√£o) de sua grosseria.(12) Uma das exposi√ß√Ķes mais claras dessa ideia √© encontrado nos escritos do grande fil√≥sofo judeu Moses Maimonides (1135-1204). Depois de tra√ßar v√°rios paralelos entre o universo como um todo e um corpo individual, Maim√īnides adverte, no entanto, que existem diferen√ßas que minam qualquer analogia simples entre macrocosmo e microcosmo. Uma dessas diferen√ßas diz respeito ao local e √† import√Ęncia do centro.
‚ÄúAs criaturas vivas dotadas de cora√ß√£o o t√™m dentro do corpo e no meio dele; ali ela √© cercada pelos √≥rg√£os que ela governa. Assim, tira proveito deles, pois eles o guardam e protegem.... O inverso ocorre no caso do Universo. A parte superior engloba as partes inferiores ... Embora influencie tudo o que est√° contido dentro, n√£o √© influenciado por nenhum ato ou for√ßa de qualquer ser material. Existe, por√©m, alguma semelhan√ßa (entre o universo e o homem) neste ponto. No corpo dos animais, os √≥rg√£os mais distantes do √≥rg√£o principal s√£o menos importantes do que os mais pr√≥ximos a ele. Tamb√©m no universo, quanto mais pr√≥ximas as partes est√£o do centro, maior √© sua turbidez, sua solidez, sua in√©rcia, sua obscuridade e escurid√£o, porque est√£o mais distantes do elemento mais elevado, da fonte de luz e brilho, que move-se por si e cuja subst√Ęncia √© a mais rarefeita e a mais simples: da esfera mais externa. Na mesma propor√ß√£o em que um corpo est√° mais pr√≥ximo desta esfera, ele deriva propriedades dela e se eleva acima das esferas abaixo dela.(13)‚ÄĚ
Essa vis√£o de nosso lugar no universo sustenta a advert√™ncia subsequente de Maim√īnides na mesma obra de que n√£o devemos "pensar que as esferas e os anjos foram criados por nossa causa" (p. 276). Nas palavras anteriores de Proclo (412-485), ''o homem √©... um 'ser distante': 'vivendo no fim do Todo, e mais distante deles (i.e., coisas reais), temos uma vis√£o grosseira e percep√ß√£o defeituosa.'''(14)
Um levantamento mais completo do pensamento √°rabe, judaico e crist√£o antigo e medieval ‚ÄĒ para o qual n√£o h√° espa√ßo suficiente aqui ‚ÄĒ refor√ßaria essa dimens√£o axiol√≥gica da cosmologia. Ascendente √© a dire√ß√£o de melhoria e import√Ęncia crescente (dentro do Cristianismo, por exemplo, o C√©u est√° alto; Cristo ressurge da morte e entra no C√©u; os esp√≠ritos dos devotos s√£o exaltados - literalmente, "elevados ao alto" - e assim por diante). Em contraste, para baixo, em dire√ß√£o ao centro, √© a dire√ß√£o da deteriora√ß√£o, da corrup√ß√£o e da sepultura. Nesse sentido, Martianus Capella (410-439) aponta em seus escritos cosmol√≥gicos, que a terra est√° ''no meio e na base'' do universo.(15) Como o ge√≥grafo √°rabe Al-Biruni (973‚Äď1048) declara, ''no centro da esfera da lua est√° a terra, e este centro √© na realidade a parte mais baixa.''(16) Tom√°s de Aquino, o maior dos fil√≥sofos crist√£os medievais, declara que, 'no universo, a terra - que todas as esferas circundam e que, quanto ao lugar, est√° no centro - √© o mais material e o mais grosseiro (ignobilissima) de todos os corpos.''(17) Al√©m disso, com base em uma extrapola√ß√£o consistente segundo essa vis√£o, a Idade M√©dia concebia o inferno como sendo localizado bem no centro e, portanto, coincidente com o centro da Terra. Na Divina Com√©dia de Dante, portanto, encontramos o Inferno, o pr√≥prio inferno, no √Ęmago da terra, bem no meio do qual, de acordo com a f√≠sica aristot√©lica e tamb√©m com a justi√ßa po√©tica, aparece Satan√°s: n√£o dan√ßando em chamas - pois o elemento de fogo pertence a outro lugar - mas congelado, im√≥vel, no gelo.(18)
Para resumir, a cosmologia pr√©-copernicana apontava n√£o para a ‚Äúcentralidade‚ÄĚ metaf√≠sica ou axiol√≥gica, mas sim para a pura grosseria da humanidade e sua morada. Nessa vis√£o, a terra aparece como um po√ßo universal, tanto figurativa quanto literalmente o ponto mais baixo do mundo. Como C. S. Lewis coloca, o modelo medieval n√£o √© de fato antropoc√™ntrico, mas "antropoperif√©rico". Essa vis√£o negativa abrange, finalmente, n√£o apenas escritores √°rabes, judeus e crist√£os antigos e medievais, mas tamb√©m muitas vozes proeminentes que costumamos associar ao humanismo renascentista, tanto antes quanto depois da √©poca de Cop√©rnico. Giovanni Pico (1463‚Äď1494), mesmo em uma obra que adquiriu o t√≠tulo Ora√ß√£o sobre a Dignidade do Homem (1486), refere-se √† nossa atual morada, a terra, como ''as partes excrementais e imundas do mundo inferior.''( 20) E um quarto de s√©culo ap√≥s a publica√ß√£o de De Revolutionibus, em 1568, Michel de Montaigne retoma o mesmo tema, declarando que estamos "alojados aqui na sujeira e imund√≠cie do mundo, pregados e rebitados ao pior e a parte mais morta do universo, no andar mais baixo da casa, e mais distante do arco celestial.'' (21)
Mas o que descobrimos quando nos voltamos desse rico e denso pano de fundo para o trabalho dos historiadores da ci√™ncia do s√©culo XX? Qu√£o surpresos Pico e Montaigne podem ficar ao ler a declara√ß√£o confiante de Morris Kline de que uma das ‚Äúdoutrinas predominantes do cristianismo‚ÄĚ na √©poca de Cop√©rnico e Kepler era o ‚Äúdogma reconfortante‚ÄĚ ‚Äúde que o homem estava no centro da universo; ...a principal preocupa√ß√£o de Deus'', e ''ator principal no palco central.''(22) Podemos evitar a conclus√£o de que o que realmente aparece como a vis√£o predominante na Idade M√©dia e al√©m, desta terra como ''as partes excrementais e imundas do mundo inferior'' contradiz categoricamente as afirma√ß√Ķes agora padr√£o de Kline e tantos outros que perpetuam esse grande clich√™ copernicano? Antes de chegar a essa conclus√£o, por√©m, consideremos algumas afirma√ß√Ķes dos pr√≥prios copernicanos.

4. COPERNICANISMO E A EXALTAÇÃO DA TERRA

Em contraste com Maim√īnides, Dante e Pico, o pr√≥prio Cop√©rnico pode ser visto como ‚Äúexaltando‚ÄĚ a posi√ß√£o da humanidade no universo. Mais notoriamente, na carta ao Papa Paulo III com a qual ele abre De Revolutionibus, Cop√©rnico conta como "come√ßou a me irritar que os fil√≥sofos ... n√£o pudessem concordar com uma teoria mais confi√°vel sobre os movimentos do sistema do universo", que o melhor e mais ordenado Artista de todos moldou para o nosso bem (propter nos).' (23) Como Fernand Hallyn comenta em seu estudo de Cop√©rnico e Kepler, 'se o homem √© o benefici√°rio do mundo, sua profunda 'centralidade ' permanece, onde quer que ele esteja fisicamente localizado. ... o universo de Cop√©rnico... permanece dessa perspectiva profundamente antropoc√™ntrico.'' (24) O contraste com a advert√™ncia de Maim√īnides, mais de 300 anos antes, para n√£o ''pensar que as esferas e os anjos foram criados por nossa causa'' dificilmente poderia ser mais claro. Ao longo do s√©culo passado, um punhado de outros estudiosos chamou a aten√ß√£o, √† sua maneira, para o car√°ter n√£o antropoc√™ntrico do geocentrismo medieval ou para as tend√™ncias antropoc√™ntricas dentro do copernicanismo,(25) mas seus argumentos, por mais robustos que sejam, aparentemente simplesmente n√£o foram registrados nem no popular nem no a mente cient√≠fica erudita.

Portanto, vamos examinar a exalta√ß√£o que o copernicanismo faz de n√≥s e de nossa terra contra o pano de fundo das suposi√ß√Ķes medievais que j√° esbocei - suposi√ß√Ķes segundo as quais nos encontramos em uma esp√©cie de po√ßo c√≥smico aqui no centro do universo. Se examinarmos o registro textual do copernicanismo, podemos ver o que tanto ele quanto seus oponentes consideraram ser as implica√ß√Ķes axiol√≥gicas de suas ideias para a quest√£o de nossa localiza√ß√£o c√≥smica. Considere primeiro a famosa carta de 1536 de Nicholas Schonberg que precede o De Revolutionibus, na qual ele encorajou Cop√©rnico a comunicar sua cosmologia a outros estudiosos. Na cosmologia de Cop√©rnico, Schonberg resume, "o sol ocupa o lugar mais baixo e, portanto, o lugar central no universo". Portanto central, e n√£o o contr√°rio. Podemos tamb√©m especular que Cop√©rnico pode ter sentido um grau consider√°vel de constrangimento, inicialmente, ao colocar o sol neste local baixo anteriormente ocupado pela terra humilde - e talvez at√© mesmo que ele esteja compensando esse aparente rebaixamento do sol quando, em seu famoso "hino", ele t√£o poeticamente (mas tamb√©m com um apelo √† praticidade) descreve o restacionamento:
E eis que no meio de tudo reside o sol. Pois quem, neste templo mais bonito, colocaria esta l√Ęmpada em outro lugar ou em um lugar melhor, de onde iluminar todas as coisas ao mesmo tempo? Pois, de fato, alguns o chamam de lanterna - e outros de mente ou governante - do universo. Hermes Trismegisto o chama de deus vis√≠vel, e a Electra de S√≥focles, ‚Äúo observador‚ÄĚ de todas as coisas. Verdadeiramente, o sol, como se estivesse sentado em um trono real, governa sua fam√≠lia de planetas enquanto eles circulam ao seu redor. (27)
Minha própria suspeita é que essa extenuante reavaliação e reforma do centro, completa com ''trono real'' (notemos o sério jogo de palavras: ''tanquam in solio regali Sol residentes...''), foi um sucesso tão deslumbrante que desde então ficamos cegos para como os predecessores de Copérnico realmente viam a localização central.
Considere outra carta, uma sobre Galileu escrita pelo cardeal Belarmino em 1615, quase 80 anos depois da de Schonberg. Belarmino aborda a quest√£o familiar de saber se a pr√≥pria B√≠blia dita uma vis√£o geoc√™ntrica. Mas, olhando al√©m dessa quest√£o e tendo em mente as evidentes implica√ß√Ķes n√£o elogiosas do geocentrismo para o status da terra, notamos como elas infundem a linguagem de Belarmino. Tanto os Pais da Igreja quanto os comentaristas modernos das Escrituras, diz Belarmino, concordam ‚Äúna interpreta√ß√£o literal de que o sol est√° no c√©u e gira em torno da terra com grande velocidade, e que a terra est√° muito longe do c√©u e fica im√≥vel no centro do mundo.''(28) Certamente ''muito longe do c√©u'' est√° muito longe de evocar qualquer imagem de um trono ou pedestal! Linguagem semelhante √© repetida por Galileu no que parece ser sua resposta a Belarmino. Aqui Galileu defende uma leitura menos literal: ‚ÄúNo que diz respeito a colocar o sol no c√©u e a terra fora dele, como a Escritura parece afirmar, etc., isso realmente me parece ser uma simples percep√ß√£o nossa e uma maneira de falar. Apenas para nossa conveni√™ncia.''(29)
A partir desta e de outras correspondências, fica claro que Galileu está interessado em derrubar não a própria Escritura, mas sim uma interpretação aristotélica obstinada dela. E uma das coisas sobre essa interpretação que ele mina é precisamente o status de isolamento cosmicamente descomplicado que Aristóteles e os seguidores de Ptolomeu atribuem à Terra. Em contraste, a versão de Galileu do copernicanismo promove a terra e seus habitantes a um papel de participação e reciprocidade dentro do esquema cósmico. Por exemplo, em Sidereus Nuncius (1610), Galileu apresenta explicitamente seu relato do brilho da terra - de como a terra envia luz para a lua assim como a lua brilha sobre a terra - como implicando comunidade e comércio entre esses dois corpos celestes, como de fato entre dois corpos celestes, ''A terra, com troca justa e grata, devolve à lua uma iluminação como a que recebe da lua.''(30) Além disso, Galileu escreve, este relato milita contra ''aqueles que afirmam, principalmente com base em que não tem movimento nem luz, que a terra deve ser excluída da dança das estrelas. Pois ... a terra tem movimento, ... ela supera a lua em brilho, e ... não é a fossa onde a sujeira e as coisas efêmeras do universo se acumulam.''(31)
A mesma ideia √© repetida com grande for√ßa e clareza mais de 20 anos depois no Di√°logo de Galileu, no qual seu porta-voz Salviati declara: ‚ÄúQuanto √† terra, procuramos... enobrec√™-la e aperfei√ßo√°-la quando nos esfor√ßamos para torn√°-la como os corpos celestes e, por assim dizer, coloc√°-lo no c√©u, de onde seus fil√≥sofos o baniram‚ÄĚ. De acordo com o relato quase un√Ęnime dos historiadores da ci√™ncia pelo menos no s√©culo passado, eles a teria colocando, ''em um pedestal'' no centro do mundo. No entanto, ao contr√°rio da afirma√ß√£o frequentemente repetida de que o geocentrismo antigo e medieval colocou a terra e a humanidade em uma posi√ß√£o de import√Ęncia suprema ou privilegiada no universo, √© o heliocentrismo, a nova cosmologia de Cop√©rnico, que realmente constr√≥i o lugar da humanidade como um de destaque. Na cosmologia ptolomaica, o lugar da terra √© baixo e humilde. Mas, em contraste, a cosmologia de Cop√©rnico e Galileu √©, em mais de um sentido, arrogante.
As vis√Ķes de Kepler tamb√©m s√£o surpreendentemente antropoc√™ntricas. Para Kepler, a posi√ß√£o central seria totalmente mon√≥tona - e n√£o me refiro apenas √† falta de luminosidade. Ele argumenta que, porque o ‚Äúhomem‚ÄĚ foi criado para contempla√ß√£o, ‚Äúe adornado e equipado com olhos, ele n√£o poderia permanecer em repouso no centro‚ÄĚ. Pelo contr√°rio, ele deve fazer uma viagem anual neste barco, que √© a nossa terra, para fazer as suas observa√ß√Ķes. ... N√£o h√° globo mais nobre ou mais adequado para o homem do que a terra. Pois, em primeiro lugar, est√° exatamente no meio dos globos principais... Acima dele est√£o Marte, J√ļpiter e Saturno. Dentro do abra√ßo de sua √≥rbita correm V√™nus e Merc√ļrio, enquanto no centro o sol gira.''(33) Esta √© claramente uma reconceitua√ß√£o completa do que significa estar no centro. Para exercer ou atualizar sua imagem divina adequadamente, os humanos devem ser capazes de observar o universo de um ponto de vista ‚Äúcentral‚ÄĚ, mas din√Ęmico e mut√°vel, convenientemente fornecido pelo que Kepler v√™ como esta nossa esta√ß√£o espacial em √≥rbita idealmente posicionada. E para ele, portanto, somente com a aboli√ß√£o do geocentrismo poderemos verdadeiramente dizer que ocupamos o melhor e mais privilegiado lugar do universo. De fato, Kepler estava t√£o convencido da superioridade da posi√ß√£o da humanidade aqui na terra que, encantadoramente, expressou certa pena por aqueles (ele pensou) que habitam J√ļpiter, e teorizou que, no plano divino, os jovianos, de modo que eles n√£o sintam muita inveja de n√≥s, habitantes da Terra, recebem algumas luas extras como forma de compensa√ß√£o: ''Que as criaturas jovianas, portanto, tenham algo com que se consolar. Deixe-os at√© ter ... seus pr√≥prios quatro planetas.''(34)
Ent√£o, novamente surge a pergunta: como o que os copernicanos e pr√©-copernicanos realmente escreveram se encaixa com os pronunciamentos dos comentaristas modernos? Onde fica a afirma√ß√£o repetida (nas palavras de aprova√ß√£o de Sigmund Freud) sobre aquele ''ultraje'' contra o ''amor-pr√≥prio ing√™nuo'' da humanidade que associamos com ''o nome de Cop√©rnico?''(35) Como isso se harmoniza com o mesmo conto contado mais recentemente por Carl Sagan e novamente por Terrence Deacon, que diz que "Desde que Cop√©rnico sugeriu pela primeira vez que a Terra Firma pode n√£o estar localizada no centro do cosmos, a maioria dos vest√≠gios remanescentes de especialidade humana entraram em d√ļvida?''(36) Sugiro que os pr√≥prios Cop√©rnico, Galileu e Kepler, se apenas os lermos, minam a suposi√ß√£o fundamental de tais pronunciamentos, ou que a localiza√ß√£o central equivale √† especialidade humana, ou que a perda da localiza√ß√£o equivale √† perda da especialidade humana.
O FINAL ESTA NOS COMENT√ĀRIOS POIS N√ÉO COUBE
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2023.03.29 18:11 autotldr Ex-Cons And Extremists Turn Media Debates Into 'Circus' Ahead Of Yet More Bulgarian Elections

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 82%. (I'm a bot)
An Alpha Research survey published on March 1 found that Petkov's We Continue The Change party and its coalition partners were leading with about 26.4 percent, just one percentage point ahead of the GERB party of former Prime Minister Boyko Borisov and its coalition partner, the Union of Democratic Forces.
Bulgarian Prime Minister Kiril Petokov, leader of the We Continue The Change party, addresses the media outside a polling station in Sofia on October 2, 2022.
With the stakes high, would-be voters turning to Bulgarian National Television and Bulgarian National Radio - both state-funded media behemoths - are being ill served, critics and experts have cautioned.
Concerns were first raised ahead of the October 2022 snap poll when Dimitar Mitev, a candidate for the Bulgarian Social Democracy - Euroleft party, and Svetlio Vitkov, leader of the populist People's Voice party, almost came to blows on BNT. 'Mental Health Of The Nation'.
Specifically, the party called for changes to Article 189 of the election law, inserting language that all registered parties "Have the right to equal participation" in campaign coverage by BNT and BNR. SEE ALSO: Special Investigation: Bulgarian Blasts, Russian Agents, And The War On Ukraine.
Milen Mitev, the general director of BNR, told RFE/RL's Bulgarian Service that more established parties are refusing to take part in debates involving extremists.
Summary Source FAQ Feedback Top keywords: party#1 election#2 Bulgarian#3 vote#4 candidate#5
Post found in /worldnews.
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I'm laying down here feeling very My dream is finding someone who loves me immensely, unconditionally, and with that, I will love him to the moon and back too. I wanna be loved. I wanna get married and have kids. We both earn money to build the ideal family we want. We will watch our kids grow up. We will live together until we have no teeth anylonger.
Ideally:
  1. Get to know each other for couple of months
  2. Make plans to meet each other.
  3. 3 years later, happy marriage hahaha (or longer)
My expectations for you:
  1. Serious, kind-hearted, and forgiving.
  2. Ready for a relationship. You are 100% honest. You should be experienced. You should understand feelings. You should speak out when you think we have issues. You should spend some time for me, at least 15min a day.
  3. Educated
  4. If you live in Vietnam, good. Otherwise, it is fine. That means I will do long distance again b√ļt I'm willing to take risks.
  5. 24-37 (You can be 38-40 but you shouldn't look too old)
  6. You don't have kids. I'm sorry but I don't want your love to be divided for someone else.
  7. Oh, one thing, I'm obsessed with crime cases, so if you r a police or a lawyer, that should be veryyyyyy interesting and know I would be excited hahah.
One thing I need you to know is that I have PTSD and i don't know when it will be fully treated. If thats something that holds you back, I understand.
Telegram Happinessiswhat97
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2023.03.29 18:11 autotldr Germany Labour Shortage: Germany to open its doors as labour shortage bites

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 77%. (I'm a bot)
A shortage of skilled workers has become a major headache for businesses in Europe's largest economy, as vast cohorts of older employees go into retirement.
Job seekers from the European Union, like Maillot, can already work in Germany with no additional visa hurdles, but even the pool of human resources is insufficient.
Making the most out of the workers already in Germany would "Not be enough" to fill the gap, Scholz told parliament earlier this month.
Finding new workers is particularly hard in eastern Germany, thanks to lower incomes than in the west and a reputation for being less welcoming to outsiders.
As Germany ages, more and more employees are retiring, while it has become harder to back-fill roles with new apprentices.
Besides confronting the worker shortage problem, in a polluting industry like steel, the challenge in the next decade will also be the transformation to greener technologies.
Summary Source FAQ Feedback Top keywords: work#1 Germany#2 new#3 Trainee#4 challenge#5
Post found in /worldnews.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
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2023.03.29 18:11 aripockily ūüĒ• Primordial Corruption of Fire ūüĒ• The primordial corruption of fire is a gargantuan elemental borne of flame, heat, and volatile destruction.

ūüĒ• Primordial Corruption of Fire ūüĒ• The primordial corruption of fire is a gargantuan elemental borne of flame, heat, and volatile destruction. submitted by aripockily to aripockily [link] [comments]


2023.03.29 18:10 joannakauw233 cisco summer 23 intern oa

Question 1
input: int n
output: n x n (black and white square lined in position with a chess board)
W B W B W
B W B W B
W B W B W
B W B W B
W B W B W
Question 2
jar of chocolate similar to leetcode 198:
Question: You are a professional robber planning to rob houses along a street. Each house has a certain amount of money stashed, the only constraint stopping you from robbing each of them is that adjacent houses have security systems connected and it will automatically contact the police if two adjacent houses were broken into on the same night. Given an integer array nums representing the amount of money of each house, return the maximum amount of money you can rob tonight without alerting the police.
Example 1:
Input: nums = [1,2,3,1]
Output: 4
Explanation: Rob house 1 (money = 1) and then rob house 3 (money = 3). Total amount you can rob = 1 + 3 = 4.

more interview questions:socaapp
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2023.03.29 18:10 autotldr Swiss announce next steps for talks with EU

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 51%. (I'm a bot)
The Swiss government says it wants to finalise a mandate for a resumption of negotiations with the European Union over the next three months.
Exploratory talks with Brussels had shown "Positive dynamics", the government said on Wednesday.
More than 20 meetings between Swiss and EU officials as well as the dialogue between the government and the cantonal authorities had helped clarify the situation, the statement added.
How do Swiss citizens view relations with the EU? Deadlock.
Relations between the two sides have been deadlocked since the Swiss government rejected the results of negotiations on an accord regulating the about 120 bilateral agreements with the 27-nation bloc.
A series of exploratory talks have taken place since March 2022 to try to re-start formal talks between the two sides.
Summary Source FAQ Feedback Top keywords: Swiss#1 government#2 between#3 Switzerland#4 talks#5
Post found in /worldnews and /europe.
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