Best moves for torterra
2007.09.17 20:41 business
/business brings you the best of your business section. From tips for running a business, to pitfalls to avoid, /business teaches you the smart moves and helps you dodge the foolish.
2019.05.10 02:32 deathseeker22 FemaleWrestlersWin
Community for sharing pics and video of the best female wrestlers delivering big moves, doing victory poses, showing off their titles and generally kicking ass!
2016.01.10 22:39 vishalb777 Pokemon Go Philly
For anything and everything Pokemon Go in the Greater Philadelphia area!
2023.03.25 02:53 kirankaurpkl best playway school in baltana
2023.03.25 02:53 Kiralyfalvy Where do I recommend a new game? I'd love to see a playthrough of the Amnesia/Penumbra series!
They shaped what modern horror games are today. They essentially perfected them and led them in a new direction. It would be such an exciting playthrough especially if he hasn't played them before.
I recommend in order (Not a best to worst list):
- Amnesia: The Dark Descent (Best horror game of all time IMO)
- SOMA (One of the best horror game stories of all time if not the best)
- Amnesia: Justine (The Dark Descent expansion)
- Amnesia: A Machine for Pigs (Macabre and excellent story)
- Penumbra: Black Plague (A classic mind twisting experience with a great story)
- Penumbra: Overture
- Penumbra: Requiem
- Amnesia: Amadeus (MOD)
- Amnesia: Rebirth (Maybe? Quite slow phased for streaming)
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2023.03.25 02:53 Heiwa-To-Ai RE: Olivia and H3 fam, the Eyebrow face lift massage is real and effective!! Can confirm from my 15++yrs of practice
| || | submitted by Heiwa-To-Ai to h3h3productions [link] [comments]
This method is real dearest Olivia 💕 I've been doing this since college and now I'm 35, and you do see the 'difference'. But here's the REAL REAL tips beauty guru forget to mention:
- There's no exact method, and the way you massage your face is up to you
- You do NOT need 10mins~15mins per session to massage your face. You can do these for like just SECONDS DAILY while you wash your face or apply your moisturiseserum etc. Just your fingers are fine.
- Ignore the K-beauty rules of 10++ serum/cream, just one serum/moisturiser that works for you is enough to help lube your face for the facial massage.
- The whole point of DAILY facial massage (remember just several seconds is fine) is to avoid your skin from dragging down.
*You can see comparison of younger to elder's faces, that your eyelids & your cheeks are the obvious one that DRAGS DOWN as you grow older. So by massaging your face daily it helps REMINDS YOUR SKIN to "stay up" .
- With that note, again just several seconds daily, no pressure required, just gently drag/massage your eyebrows, eyelid, crows feet, cheeks AGAINST THE GRAVITY. how you wanna massage it is up to you, just simply move against gravity.
And finally this is important
- Patience, you wont see the results immediately, but in long term you will notice your face REMAIN youthful over years.
As a daily facial massage practicer for 15++ years, I do see the 'difference' especially the facelift around my eyes, my crows feet also reduced and my face remain youthful compare to my peers. I never went to any facial treatment sessions, or spent hundreds over face products, just the ordinary hyaluronic serum and daily hada labo moisturiser (with spf) (that works for my skin) are enough.
- Additional tip!! If I have headache, I would hold both ends of my eyebrows or massage my eyelids and forehead upward. It helps to mitigate the headache while giving yourself a quick face lift.
SERIOUSLY you guys don't need to spend any more extra money to give yourself a face lift, also keep them gorgeous cheeks!! The natural you are the best! Hope this helps other h3fam who are curious ✌🏼&❤️
2023.03.25 02:53 scientia_ipsa Moved to Preperation for notification... how long until I can see the decision online?
Moved to Preperation for notification today... how long until I can see the decision online?
I saw that others could see the decision before getting the letter in the snail mail.. when and where could I find such a letter?
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2023.03.25 02:53 throwRA6677889 My husband (M42) has been abusive and now that I’ve (F29) had a mental breakdown he won’t even help.
We have been married for 8 months. We didn’t live together before marriage.
The marriage hasn’t started great. He would constantly nitpick on things such as why I am on my phone and that I am lazy. All of which wasn’t true as whenever he was home, I would spend time with him. I would also spend time cleaning/cooking despite me working more hours than him at work.
I changed the way I dressed for him and start to go makeup free. This was because he had an issue with the way I dressed. I would get hit on by men and he wouldn’t like it. In hindsight, I shouldn’t have changed the way I dressed because he was the one who pursued me knowing fully well how I was. From wearing dresses, skirts, heels and makeup I start to wear baggy hoodies, trainers and no makeup. Even when it came to sex, majority of the times I would initiate it.
During our marriage he has called me a slt (even though he is the only person I’ve ever been with), btch, tramp, washed up, unappealing, bipolar, worse than all of his ex girlfriends, smelly. Some of the things he admitted he would say to cause me offence. He would constantly gaslight me. Do things right in front of me and say he didn’t. He has called me selfish and a compulsive liar. When I ask for examples he never gives any. I’ve said to him I want to know as a way so I can improve myself. But he never gives any examples. Yet I can give so many examples of when he’s lied. So it makes me thing he’s making it all up as I genuinely cannot think of when I have lied to him.
He has put his hands on me. This includes pushing me, dragging me, pinning me down and pulling my hair. He has blocked my way from when I’ve tried to leave. He has done this about 4 times now. He doesn’t consider himself physically abusive because he claims he hasn’t punched or kicked me. He has thrown my phone multiple times and has also threw my clothes on the floor.
His father passed away few months ago. My husband went in a really dark place. He began to drink. (We both were non drinkers due to culture). He drank excessively. Constantly getting drunk and passing out. I would go look for him even 2am. I would sometimes find him passed out outside or in his car. This continued for about 2 months. Naturally it took its toll on me. The drinking and beginning to do weed. He was always a smoker but began to smoke up to 30 a day. His drinking became so bad that certain days he would drink 30-40 units in a day. He didn’t help with the funeral as he was too busy being drunk.
As a result one day he ended up breaking his bone in his arm. As he was too drunk and fell when he was outside. He had an operation. The doctor told him he cannot smoke anymore or drink. He stopped the drinking. He stopped the smoking for a while and then is now back on it.
Couple of times I have cried in front of him. One time I told him I became overwhelmed and it was taking its toll on mentally especially with all the abuse too. He was apologetic. Few weeks after we had an argument. He mimicked my crying and told me to act like a victim again. He spent 2-3 hours just really annihilating me as a person. He used my childhood issues (something that took me many years to finally talk about and I only told him) against me, he told me I loved being a victim, told me to cry again and act, he laughed and smoked in my face. I asked him not to as I don’t want smoke in my lungs. He didn’t care. He called me a sl*t and that I thrive on male attention.
I felt so overwhelmed. I decided to leave for a bit. I wanted some fresh air. This was about 2am. I was gone for about an hour. What hurt me is he never rang or checked if I was okay. I came back and he was playing computer games. I told him it’s upsetting he wouldn’t check up on me. He told me I was a grown woman and that I could handle myself. In the past whenever he has left after midnight, I’ve at least text him to ask if he is okay etc.
The constant gaslighting, abuse and name calling etc took its toll on me. I self harmed once. It’s stupid, I know. But recently I have felt so mentally drained and upset. I cry uncontrollably. We had an argument recently. He once again mocked me. He pulled my hair. I lost it. I cried so much. I felt I was losing my mind. I start to hyperventilate and found it struggle to breath. I was sitting on the floor and remember I fell to my side and start shaking uncontrollably with saliva out my mouth. It was as if my body was doing its own thing. He came and picked me up. He did hug me. I don’t know what it was. I felt I lost control. Whilst he’s hugging me I remember him saying that I was a bad actress and should stop acting.
But I wasn’t acting. In fact internally I was a bit scared that how my body could shake when I’m not wanting it to. The rest of the night is a bit of a blur but I do remember there was a part I start to scream and block my ears as I got scared. He said a lot of things to me but all I remember was him hugging me alot, asking me to breathe calmly and also calling me a bad actress for acting. The rest of stuff I don’t really know what he was saying.
The next morning, I left. I told him I didn’t want to burden him. I rang a doctor and have an appointment for next week. I am struggling with my mental health. Even now, I have moments where I cry so much, wish death on myself and my muscle have now began to twitch. I moved out 5 days ago. I got so emotional yesterday and felt I was losing my mind. I wanted help. Stupidly I rang my husband once and text him asking for help. He ignored me. For some reason I thought he would help me based on the amount of times I’ve been there for him. I was wrong.
I don’t know what’s wrong with me and how I can get emotions back to control. How do people recover from an abusive relationship?
Tldr: husband has been emotionally and physically abusive. I had a mental breakdown and find myself losing my mind. I wanted his help, he has ignored me. I have got a doctor appointment to get help. How does one recover from this?
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2023.03.25 02:52 Alone-Ad-917 Best jordan 1 union black toes
I need help looking for the best jordan 1 union black toes… I’m undecided who has the best quality boom 1950? Ogandy?muks?mr hou? Thanks in advance
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2023.03.25 02:52 pearszy Rolling Fork MS hit hard by tornado
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2023.03.25 02:52 Bb9399 Lpt I need advice
So I need advice. I just went on a vacation with these 2 girls that I considered my best friends. We have known each other for a little over a year. We’ve never had any fights or problems in the friendship but, during the trip I felt left out a lot and like sometimes they were even texting each other and talking about me or giving each other looks about me. I’ve never felt this way before hanging out with them but it was our first time taking a trip together. I already had some bad things happen before the trip, that they knew about, and I was hoping this trip would lighten my spirits but they complained the whole time. I hate negative people so I’m not sure if I still want to be their friend or not? I feel bad bc they have been there for me before yet I can’t stand to be around that negative energy especially when there’s negative things I’m already trying to work through
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2023.03.25 02:52 fac429 Charlotte to Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Hello! Hoping that many of you familiar with the BRP can help me out a bit. My family will be driving from Charlotte to Great Smoky Mountains National Park the first week of April. I've been studying maps to figure out the best way of doing that while driving at least some of the BRP without forcing the rest of my family to spend ALL day in the car. So I'm hoping that you can provide a little advice on how we should go about getting from Point A (Charlotte) to Point B (Great Smoky Mountains National Park) in a way that's beautiful but not overly long.
I realize the "fastest" way to get to the BRP from Charlotte is to go straight north. Problem with that is that from there we end up spending a pretty significant amount of time driving the BRP, and ideally we'd like to try to get to the Park sometime around the middle of the afternoon.
There's a lot of other options, like trying to pick up the BRP near Asheville or further west. We can also "shortcut" across parts of Hwy 19 as we get near the end. But I don't want to do the latter if it means skipping some of the best parts of the drive.
Any advice is welcome. This is our first time driving any part of the Blue Ridge Parkway, first time in North Carolina, first time for pretty much all of this. Thanks so much for your help!
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2023.03.25 02:52 Namanbhaal car suggestions
the camries and the civics ( THEY ARE FU*king expensive now ) . ppl know this shit and are asking for like 8k for a 2009 civic run 200k already , like excuse me ? Anyway i don’t think these provide the best value in the updated market contrary to the popular belief. What are some other “sensible” cars i can take a look at ? cheers!
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to SurreyBC [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 02:52 sgnfngnthng Question about a crosswalk
Hello, urban planners.
I’m not an urban planner. I’m just a pedestrian who regularly crosses a strangely designed intersection on foot and is rather tired of close calls with automobiles. This is in the USA btw.
Are there accessible guides to understanding regulations, guidelines, or best practices for designing crosswalks? Are there common metrics used to assess the safety of crosswalks?
I’m just trying to understand how this all works at a non expert level so that, at some point, when I start reaching out to my city government I understand a little bit about how this works.
Any guidance would be most welcome.
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2023.03.25 02:52 ReanimatedCyborg7 Good first performances, are in fact bad
I've been told enough "honestly I'm still sore" and "it was honestly kind of much" type things. I've even been told too much "honestly that would be a bit much for me but I'm sure someone else it'd be great ;)...."
I'm starting to think many difficult dating situations stem from that they just aren't saying that's part of the problem. I've decided I should start having very firm post sex conversations about it about it and reassuring it is something that can be worked through. Even when they think it's the best thing they've ever had afterwards it turns into fear and lack of desire to be worn out like that again too much. Many situations like the one I am hurting over right now I suspect my size being too large may be a very big consideration from the times it has been disclosed to me it was.
What have you found are effective ways to talk through this with a prospective partner and how to make them feel more comfortable with it?
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2023.03.25 02:52 HumanCommunication23 Best Space Heater For A Garage – our top 12 picks - Bestofappliancesreview
2023.03.25 02:52 gonemad16 First attempt: George Dates a driving instructor but can't decipher if they're dating or she's giving lessons. Kramer goes to the cinema just for the popcorn.
So I am attempting to get chatgpt to write a full seinfeld script (through bing). It errors out a lot so this has been the best attempt so far at getting a full episode. Premise is from here: https://www.reddit.com/RedditWritesSeinfeld/comments/11zomnc/george_dates_a_driving_instructor_but_cant/
George Dates a driving instructor but can't decipher if they're dating or she's giving lessons. Kramer goes to the cinema just for the popcorn. Elaine dates a male feminist. Jerry stars in Who’s Line Is It Anyway and bombs the improv
I cut Jerry and Elaines story line since chatgpt would error out or get some content policy issue. The final scene failed as well and I hit the limit but it was a decent attempt
``` [INT. COFFEE SHOP - DAY]
GEORGE: (sitting at a table with a newspaper) Ah, what a beautiful day. The sun is shining, the birds are singing, and I have nothing to do but enjoy this cup of coffee. (looks around) Maybe I'll even meet someone interesting today. You never know.
DENISE: (approaching his table) Excuse me, is this seat taken?
GEORGE: (looks up and sees a young woman with a driving school jacket) No, no, please, sit down.
DENISE: Thanks. (sits down and puts her jacket on the chair) I'm Denise, by the way.
GEORGE: George. Nice to meet you.
DENISE: Likewise. So, what do you do, George?
GEORGE: Well, I'm an architect.
DENISE: Really? That's impressive.
GEORGE: Thank you. Thank you very much. And you?
DENISE: I'm a driving instructor.
GEORGE: A driving instructor? Wow, that's... that's something.
DENISE: Yeah, it's not the most glamorous job, but it pays the bills.
GEORGE: I bet you have some stories to tell.
DENISE: Oh, you have no idea. Some of the people I have to teach are unbelievable. They don't know how to signal, they don't know how to park, they don't know how to merge...
GEORGE: They don't know how to merge? How can they not know how to merge?
DENISE: I know, right? It's like they've never driven before.
GEORGE: Well, maybe they haven't.
DENISE: Well, then they shouldn't be on the road.
GEORGE: Exactly. Exactly. You and I are on the same page, Denise.
DENISE: (laughs) I guess we are.
GEORGE: So, Denise... can I ask you something?
GEORGE: Would you like to go out with me?
DENISE: (smiles) Really? You want to go out with me?
GEORGE: Yes. Yes, I do.
DENISE: Well... okay. Sure. Why not?
GEORGE: Great. Great. How about tomorrow?
DENISE: Tomorrow sounds good.
GEORGE: Perfect. Perfect. Where should we meet?
DENISE: How about the driving school? It's on 5th and Main.
GEORGE: The driving school? Okay... sure... why not?
DENISE: Great. I'll see you there at 10.
GEORGE: 10? In the morning?
DENISE: Yeah. Is that a problem?
GEORGE: No... no... not at all... 10 is fine...
DENISE: Okay then. It's a date.
GEORGE: It's a date. (smiles nervously)
[END OF SCENE] ```
``` [INT. MOVIE THEATER - DAY]
KRAMER: (sitting in the front row with a large bucket of popcorn) Mmm... this popcorn is amazing. (takes a handful and shoves it in his mouth) So buttery, so salty, so crunchy... (chews loudly)
JERRY: (sitting next to him) Kramer, can you keep it down? You're making too much noise.
KRAMER: What? I can't hear you. The movie's too loud.
JERRY: The movie's too loud? It's a silent film.
KRAMER: Well, then why are we here?
JERRY: Because you wanted to see it.
KRAMER: I did?
JERRY: Yes, you did. You said it was a classic.
KRAMER: I did?
JERRY: Yes, you did.
KRAMER: Well, I don't remember that.
JERRY: Well, you did.
KRAMER: Well, maybe I did. But I don't care about it now. All I care about is this popcorn. (takes another handful and shoves it in his mouth)
JERRY: Kramer, you've been eating popcorn non-stop for the past hour. Don't you think you've had enough?
KRAMER: Enough? Jerry, there's no such thing as enough when it comes to this popcorn. It's the best popcorn I ever had in my life. And I've had a lot of popcorn.
JERRY: Really? How much?
KRAMER: How much? Jerry, I've been going to the movies every day for the past two weeks just for the popcorn.
JERRY: Every day?
KRAMER: Every day.
JERRY: Even if you don't care about the film?
KRAMER: Even if I don't care about the film.
JERRY: Kramer, that's insane.
KRAMER: No, Jerry, that's genius. Think about it. For the price of one ticket, I get unlimited access to the best popcorn in the world. And I get to see a different movie every time. It's like a buffet of entertainment.
JERRY: But you don't even watch the movies.
KRAMER: So what? They're all the same anyway. Boy meets girl, boy loses girl, boy gets girl back. Blah blah blah. Who needs that when you have this? (holds up the bucket of popcorn)
JERRY: Kramer, you have a problem.
KRAMER: No, Jerry, I have a solution.
[END OF SCENE] ```
``` [INT. DRIVING SCHOOL CAR - DAY]
GEORGE: (sitting in the driver's seat) So, here we are.
DENISE: (sitting in the passenger seat) Yes, here we are.
GEORGE: You look lovely today.
DENISE: Thank you.
GEORGE: So, where are we going?
DENISE: We're going to drive around the block and practice some basic skills.
GEORGE: Oh. Okay.
DENISE: Are you ready?
GEORGE: Ready as I'll ever be.
DENISE: All right, then. Start the engine.
GEORGE: (starts the engine) There we go.
DENISE: Good. Now, put your seat belt on.
GEORGE: (puts his seat belt on) Safety first.
DENISE: Right. Now, check your mirrors.
GEORGE: (checks his mirrors) Check.
DENISE: Good. Now, put your foot on the brake.
GEORGE: (puts his foot on the brake) Brake.
DENISE: Good. Now, put the car in drive.
GEORGE: (puts the car in drive) Drive.
DENISE: Good. Now, release the brake and gently press the gas pedal.
GEORGE: (releases the brake and gently presses the gas pedal) Gas.
DENISE: Good. Now, steer the car to the right and exit the parking lot.
GEORGE: (steers the car to the right and exits the parking lot) Right.
DENISE: Good. Now, keep your eyes on the road and follow the traffic signs and signals.
GEORGE: (keeps his eyes on the road and follows the traffic signs and signals) Road.
DENISE: Good. You're doing great.
GEORGE: (smiles) Thanks. You're a great teacher.
DENISE: Thank you.
GEORGE: Can I ask you something?
GEORGE: Are we... are we on a date?
GEORGE: Are we on a date? I mean, you agreed to go out with me yesterday at the coffee shop, right?
DENISE: Well, yes, but...
GEORGE: But what?
DENISE: But this is not a date. This is a driving lesson.
GEORGE: A driving lesson?
DENISE: Yes, a driving lesson. I'm a driving instructor, remember?
GEORGE: Well, yes, but...
DENISE: But what?
GEORGE: But why did you tell me to meet you at the driving school? Why didn't you tell me to meet you somewhere else? Somewhere more... date-like?
DENISE: Because this is where I work. This is where I have my car. This is where I teach people how to drive.
GEORGE: But you don't have to teach me how to drive. I already know how to drive.
DENISE: Really? Then why did you sign up for a driving lesson?
GEORGE: Because I thought it was a date!
DENISE: Well, it's not!
(A car horn honks behind them)
DENISE: Watch out! You're blocking the intersection!
(GEORGE swerves and hits a fire hydrant)
[END OF SCENE] ```
``` [INT. MOVIE THEATER - DAY]
KRAMER: (sitting in the back row with a large paper bag) Mmm... this popcorn is amazing. (takes a handful and shoves it in his mouth) So buttery, so salty, so crunchy... (chews loudly)
USHER: (approaching him) Excuse me, sir. Can I see your ticket?
KRAMER: (swallows) Sure, sure. Here you go. (hands him a ticket)
USHER: (looks at the ticket) Sir, this ticket is for yesterday.
KRAMER: Oh, really? Well, that's a mistake. I bought it today.
USHER: Sir, I don't think so. This ticket is clearly dated and stamped.
KRAMER: Well, maybe the machine was broken.
USHER: Sir, please don't lie to me. I know you're trying to sneak in.
KRAMER: Sneak in? Me? No, no, no. I would never do that.
USHER: Sir, I'm going to have to ask you to leave.
KRAMER: Leave? But I'm watching the movie.
USHER: Sir, you're not watching the movie. You're eating popcorn.
KRAMER: Well, what's wrong with that?
USHER: Sir, where did you get that popcorn?
KRAMER: (looks at the bag) This popcorn?
USHER: Yes, that popcorn.
KRAMER: Well... I brought it from home.
USHER: You brought it from home?
KRAMER: Yeah. Yeah, I did.
USHER: Sir, you can't bring your own popcorn to the theater. That's against the rules.
KRAMER: Rules? What rules?
USHER: The rules that say you have to buy your popcorn from the concession stand.
KRAMER: Oh, those rules.
USHER: Yes, those rules.
KRAMER: Well, I didn't know about those rules.
USHER: Sir, they're posted everywhere. No outside food or drink allowed.
KRAMER: Well, I didn't see them.
USHER: Sir, they're right there. (points to a sign)
KRAMER: Oh. Well, I didn't read them.
USHER: Sir, please stop making excuses. You know you're not supposed to bring your own popcorn.
KRAMER: Okay, okay. Fine. You got me. I brought my own popcorn. So what?
USHER: So what? So what? Sir, do you have any idea how much money we make from selling popcorn?
USHER: A lot. A lot of money. Popcorn is our main source of income. It's how we pay our bills. It's how we keep this theater running.
USHER: Yes, really. And when you bring your own popcorn, you're taking away our profits. You're stealing from us.
KRAMER: Stealing? Come on. That's a bit harsh.
USHER: No, it's not. It's the truth. And you know what we do to thieves?
USHER: We ban them from the theater.
KRAMER: Ban them?
USHER: Yes, ban them. As in never let them come back again.
KRAMER: But... but...
USHER: But nothing. You're banned, buddy. Banned for life.
KRAMER: Banned for life?
USHER: Banned for life.
(KRAMER gasps and drops the bag of popcorn)
[END OF SCENE] ```
``` [INT. DRIVING SCHOOL OFFICE - DAY]
GEORGE: (sitting across from DENISE) Denise, I need to talk to you.
DENISE: What is it, George?
GEORGE: Look, I'm sorry about what happened yesterday. I didn't mean to cause an accident.
DENISE: It's okay, George. It wasn't your fault.
GEORGE: It wasn't?
DENISE: No, it was the fire hydrant's fault. It shouldn't have been there.
GEORGE: Oh. Well, that's good to know.
GEORGE: Denise, I have to ask you something.
DENISE: What is it, George?
GEORGE: Are we... are we dating?
DENISE: (sighs) George, we've been over this.
GEORGE: I know, I know. But I need a clear answer. Yes or no?
DENISE: No, George. We are not dating.
GEORGE: We're not?
DENISE: No, we're not.
GEORGE: But why not?
DENISE: Because this is not a relationship. This is a business transaction.
GEORGE: A business transaction?
DENISE: Yes, a business transaction. You pay me to teach you how to drive. That's it.
GEORGE: But what about the coffee shop? What about the conversation? What about the chemistry?
DENISE: What chemistry?
GEORGE: The chemistry! The spark! The connection!
DENISE: George, there was no spark. There was no connection. There was only coffee.
GEORGE: Only coffee?
DENISE: Only coffee.
GEORGE: But you smiled at me. You laughed at my jokes. You touched my arm.
DENISE: I was being polite. I was being friendly. I was being professional.
DENISE: Yes, professional. George, I'm a driving instructor. That's my job. And part of my job is to make my students feel comfortable and confident behind the wheel.
GEORGE: Comfortable and confident?
DENISE: Yes, comfortable and confident.
GEORGE: Well, you failed miserably at that.
DENISE: Excuse me?
GEORGE: You heard me. You're a terrible driving instructor.
DENISE: I'm a terrible driving instructor?
GEORGE: Yes, you are.
DENISE: How dare you say that? I'm one of the best driving instructors in this city.
GEORGE: Oh, really? Then how come you couldn't teach me how to drive?
DENISE: Because you're a hopeless case, George. You're a terrible driver.
GEORGE: I'm a terrible driver?
DENISE: Yes, you are.
GEORGE: How dare you say that? I'm one of the best drivers in this city.
DENISE: Oh, really? Then how come you crashed into a fire hydrant?
GEORGE: Because it shouldn't have been there!
DENISE: That's no excuse, George. You have no sense of direction, no sense of speed, no sense of traffic rules. You don't know how to signal, you don't know how to park, you don't know how to merge...
GEORGE: Hey, hey, hey! Enough with the merging already!
DENISE: George, face it. You need more lessons.
GEORGE: More lessons?
DENISE: Yes, more lessons.
(GEORGE stands up and grabs his coat)
GEORGE: Forget it, Denise. Forget it. I don't need more lessons. I don't need you. I don't need anyone. I'm outta here.
(GEORGE storms out of the office)
[END OF SCENE] ```
[INT. JERRY'S APARTMENT - DAY]
JERRY: (on the phone) Hello? Kramer? Is that you?
KRAMER: (on the other end) Yeah, Jerry. It's me.
JERRY: Kramer, where have you been? I haven't seen you in weeks.
KRAMER: I've been... busy.
JERRY: Busy? Doing what?
KRAMER: You know... stuff.
JERRY: Stuff? What kind of stuff?
KRAMER: Just... stuff.
JERRY: Kramer, are you okay? You sound depressed.
KRAMER: Depressed? Me? No, no, no. I'm fine.
JERRY: Are you sure?
KRAMER: Yeah, yeah, yeah. I'm sure.
JERRY: Well, then why don't you come over? We're having a poker night. George and Elaine are here.
KRAMER: Poker night? No, thanks. I'm not in the mood.
JERRY: Not in the mood? Since when are you not in the mood for poker?
KRAMER: Since... since now.
JERRY: Kramer, what's going on? What's wrong?
KRAMER: Nothing's wrong, Jerry. Nothing's wrong.
JERRY: Come on, Kramer. You can tell me. I'm your friend.
KRAMER: (sighs) All right, Jerry. All right. I'll tell you.
JERRY: Okay. Tell me.
KRAMER: I'm... I'm out of popcorn.
JERRY: Out of popcorn?
KRAMER: Yeah. Out of popcorn.
JERRY: And that's why you're depressed?
KRAMER: Well, yeah. Jerry, you don't understand. This is not just any popcorn. This is the best popcorn in the world. The cinema popcorn.
JERRY: The cinema popcorn?
KRAMER: Yeah. The cinema popcorn. The popcorn that makes life worth living. The popcorn that fills my soul with joy and happiness.
KRAMER: And I can't have it anymore, Jerry. I can't have it anymore.
JERRY: Why not?
KRAMER: Because they banned me from the theater, Jerry. They banned me for life.
JERRY: They banned you for life?
KRAMER: Yeah. They banned me for life.
JERRY: Why did they ban you for life?
KRAMER: Because I was taking popcorn from other people's seats, Jerry. I was taking popcorn from other people's seats.
JERRY: You were taking popcorn from other people's seats?
KRAMER: Yeah. I was taking popcorn from other people's seats.
JERRY: Kramer, that's stealing.
KRAMER: No, Jerry. That's surviving.
KRAMER: Yeah. Surviving. Jerry, you don't know what it's like to be addicted to popcorn. To crave it every day. To need it every hour. To live for it every minute.
JERRY: No, I don't.
KRAMER: Well, I do, Jerry. I do. And when they cut me off from my supply, I had to find another way to get it. And the only way was to take it from others.
JERRY: Kramer, that's crazy.
KRAMER: No, Jerry. That's desperate.
KRAMER: Yeah. Desperate. And it worked for a while, Jerry. It worked for a while. But then they caught me. They caught me red-handed with a handful of popcorn in my mouth and a bucket of popcorn in my lap.
JERRY: And then what happened?
KRAMER: And then they kicked me out of the theater, Jerry. They kicked me out and they told me never to come back again.
KRAMER: Yeah. Wow.
JERRY: Well... that's too bad.
KRAMER: Yeah. Too bad.
JERRY: So... what are you going to do now?
KRAMER: I don't know, Jerry. I don't know. I've tried everything else. Microwave popcorn, stovetop popcorn, air-popped popcorn... but none of them compare to the cinema popcorn. None of them have that magic touch.
JERRY: Well... maybe you should try something else.
KRAMER: Like what?
JERRY: Like... chips?
KRAMER: Chips? Chips?! Jerry, are you kidding me? Chips are nothing compared to popcorn! Chips are dry
[END OF SCENE] ```
Scene 7: Attempted ending with ChatGPT having no context
``` [INT. JERRY'S APARTMENT]
GEORGE: (angrily) I can't believe it! She dumped me because I'm a bad driver!
JERRY: Who dumped you?
GEORGE: Denise! The driving instructor!
JERRY: The driving instructor dumped you because you're a bad driver?
GEORGE: Yes! She said I have no sense of direction, I don't signal properly, and I brake too hard!
JERRY: Well, maybe she has a point.
GEORGE: What do you mean?
JERRY: Come on, George. You're not exactly Mario Andretti behind the wheel.
GEORGE: Oh, and you are?
JERRY: Well, I'm better than you.
GEORGE: Oh, please. You're a nervous wreck. You always grip the steering wheel like it's a life preserver.
JERRY: That's because it is. Have you seen the way people drive in this city?
ELAINE: (entering) Hey, guys.
GEORGE: Elaine, you're a witness. Who's a better driver? Me or Jerry?
ELAINE: Oh, boy. That's a tough one.
GEORGE: Come on, Elaine. Be honest.
ELAINE: Yeah, sorry, George. Jerry's a better driver.
GEORGE: How can you say that?
ELAINE: Well, for one thing, he doesn't yell at every pedestrian and cyclist on the road.
GEORGE: They're in my way!
ELAINE: And he doesn't honk his horn every five seconds.
GEORGE: It's a form of communication!
ELAINE: And he doesn't park on the sidewalk.
GEORGE: There's no space on the street!
JERRY: George, face it. You're a bad driver.
GEORGE: I'm not a bad driver! I'm a good driver!
KRAMER: (entering) Hey, hey, hey! What's going on here?
ELAINE: Oh, hi, Kramer.
KRAMER: What are you guys talking about?
JERRY: George got dumped by his driving instructor because he's a bad driver.
KRAMER: Oh, that's too bad.
GEORGE: Thank you, Kramer. Finally, someone who sympathizes with me.
KRAMER: Yeah, yeah. Listen, do you guys have any popcorn?
KRAMER: Yeah, popcorn. You know, the crunchy stuff you eat at the movies.
JERRY: Yeah, we know what popcorn is. Why do you want popcorn?
KRAMER: Because I'm addicted to it!
KRAMER: Yeah, yeah. Ever since I started working at that cinema, I can't stop eating popcorn. It's like crack to me!
JERRY: Well, why don't you just quit your job?
KRAMER: Quit my job? Are you kidding? That's the best part! Free popcorn!
ELAINE: Kramer, that's not healthy. You have to cut down on your popcorn intake.
KRAMER: No, no, no. I can't do that. I need it. I need it bad.
JERRY: Kramer, this is ridiculous. You have to stop this madness.
KRAMER: No, no, no. You don't understand. It's too late for me. I'm hooked. Hooked on popcorn!
(Kramer starts twitching and shaking)
ELAINE: Oh my god. He's having a popcorn withdrawal!
JERRY: Quick! Get him some water!
(George grabs a glass of water and hands it to Kramer)
KRAMER: (drinking the water) Ahh...that's better.
(Kramer calms down)
KRAMER: Thanks, George. You're a lifesaver.
GEORGE: Don't mention it.
KRAMER: By the way...you're a terrible driver.
(George looks stunned and hurt)
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2023.03.25 02:52 FitInvestigator5945 SATIRE RESEARCH NAIJAH CLOVER FROM THE GET GO
SSTURDAY APRIL 25TH, 2020
Horatian: Horatian satire is tolerant, funny, sophisticated witty, wise, self-effacing and aims to correct through humor...
Juvenalian: Juvenalian satire is angry, caustic, personal, relentless, bitter, and serious...
- Humor:Exaggeration or overstatement: Something that does happen, but is exaggerated to absurd lengths...
Genre of arts and literature in the form of humor or ridicule
In fiction and less frequently in non-fiction, satire is a genre of literature and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses and shor... en.wikipedia.org
Satire is a technique in art and literature that pokes fun at established artistic or cultural norms. Satirists practice their craft for the sake of social criticism, comedy, or, often, both. The different satire genres include spoof, parody, and classic literary satire techniques.
Definition of satire
1: a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or scorn
2: trenchant wit, irony, or sarcasm used to expose and discredit vice or folly https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/satire
The Culinary Roots of Satire
Satire came into English at the beginning of the 16th century, and the meaning of the word has not strayed very far from its original sense. The initial uses were primarily applied to poems, and the term now has a broader applicability. Satire has a semantic and etymological overlap with both farce and lampoon. Farce ("a light dramatic composition marked by broadly satirical comedy and improbable plot") came into English as a synonym for forcemeat, meaning "finely chopped and highly seasoned meat or fish that is either served alone or used as a stuffing." Lampoon ("a harsh satire usually directed against an individual") is thought to come from the French lampons!, meaning "let us guzzle!" And satire is believed to trace back to the Latin satur, meaning "well-fed."
Examples of satire in a Sentence
By contrast, Martial's friend, Juvenal, learned to transmute Martial's epigrammatic wit into savage satire. Juvenal's fierce, if occasionally obscene, tirades against immorality fit easily into the propaganda of the new era.
— G. W. Bowersock, New York Review of Books, 26 Feb. 2009
Unlike late-night talk shows that traffic in Hollywood interviews and stupid pet tricks, "The Daily Show" is a fearless social satire. Not many comedy shows would dare do five minutes on the intricacies of medicare or a relentlessly cheeky piece on President George W. Bush's Thanksgiving trip to Iraq …
— Marc Peyser, Newsweek, 29 Dec. 2003 - 5 Jan. 2004
In fiction and less frequently in non-fiction, satire is a genre of literature and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society.
A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm —"in satire, irony is militant", according to literary critic Northrup Frye— but parody, burlesque, exaggeration, juxtaposition, comparison, analogy, and double entendre are all frequently used in satirical speech and writing. This "militant" irony or sarcasm often professes to approve of (or at least accept as natural) the very things the satirist wishes to question.
Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, literature, plays, commentary, television shows, and media such as lyrics.
Etymology and roots
The word satire comes from the Latin word satur and the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura literally means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".
The word satura as used by Quintilian, however, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be later intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, that is a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin (satura tota nostra est). He was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius.
To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes:
As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; and satura (which had had no verbal, adverbial, or adjectival forms) was immediately broadened by appropriation from the Greek word for “satyr” (satyros) and its derivatives. The odd result is that the English “satire” comes from the Latin satura; but "satirize", "satiric", etc., are of Greek origin. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus; St. Jerome, for example, was called by one of his enemies 'a satirist in prose' ('satyricus scriptor in prosa'). Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, and in England, by the 16th century, it was written 'satyre.'
The word satire derives from satura, and its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time.
“ The rules of satire are such that it must do more than make you laugh. No matter how amusing it is, it doesn't count unless you find yourself wincing a little even as you chuckle. ”
Laughter is not an essential component of satire; in fact there are types of satire that are not meant to be "funny" at all. Conversely, not all humour, even on such topics as politics, religion or art is necessarily "satirical", even when it uses the satirical tools of irony, parody, and burlesque.
Even light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, and then make them think".
Social and psychological functions
Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study. They provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, and the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.
Historically, satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy, religion and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power (be it political, economic, religious, symbolic, or otherwise), by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to clarify, amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, and it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse.
For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions. The satiric impulse, and its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, and the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, and especially satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders, especially Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations.
Satire is a diverse genre which is complex to classify and define, with a wide range of satiric "modes".
Horatian, Juvenalian, Menippean
"Le satire e l'epistole di Q. Orazio Flacco", printed in 1814.
Satirical literature can commonly be categorized as either Horatian, Juvenalian, or Menippean.
Horatian satire, named for the Roman satirist Horace (65–8 BCE), playfully criticizes some social vice through gentle, mild, and light-hearted humour. Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) wrote Satires to gently ridicule the dominant opinions and "philosophical beliefs of ancient Rome and Greece" (Rankin). Rather than writing in harsh or accusing tones, he addressed issues with humor and clever mockery. Horatian satire follows this same pattern of "gently [ridiculing] the absurdities and follies of human beings" (Drury).
It directs wit, exaggeration, and self-deprecating humour toward what it identifies as folly, rather than evil. Horatian satire's sympathetic tone is common in modern society.
A Horatian satirist's goal is to heal the situation with smiles, rather than by anger. Horatian satire is a gentle reminder to take life less seriously and evokes a wry smile. A Horatian satirist makes fun of general human folly rather than engaging in specific or personal attacks. Shamekia Thomas suggests, "In a work using Horatian satire, readers often laugh at the characters in the story who are the subject of mockery as well as themselves and society for behaving in those ways." Alexander Pope has been established as an author whose satire "heals with morals what it hurts with wit" (Green). Alexander Pope—and Horatian satire—attempt to teach.
Examples of Horatian satire:
The Ig Nobel Prizes.
Bierce, Ambrose, The Devil's Dictionary.
Defoe, Daniel, The True-Born Englishman.
The Savoy Operas of Gilbert and Sullivan.
Trollope, Anthony, The Way We Live Now.
Gogol, Nikolai, Dead Souls.
Groening, Matthew "Matt", The Simpsons.
Lewis, Clive Staples, The Screwtape Letters.
Mercer, Richard ‘Rick’, The Rick Mercer Report.
More, Thomas, Utopia
Pope, Alexander, The Rape of the Lock.
Reiner, Rob, This Is Spinal Tap.
Twain, Mark, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
Ralston Saul, John, The Doubter's Companion: A Dictionary of Aggressive Common Sense.
See also: Satires of Juvenal
Juvenalian satire, named for the writings of the Roman satirist Juvenal (late first century – early second century AD), is more contemptuous and abrasive than the Horatian. Juvenal disagreed with the opinions of the public figures and institutions of the Republic and actively attacked them through his literature. "He utilized the satirical tools of exaggeration and parody to make his targets appear monstrous and incompetent" (Podzemny). Juvenal's satire follows this same pattern of abrasively ridiculing societal structures. Juvenal also, unlike Horace, attacked public officials and governmental organizations through his satires, regarding their opinions as not just wrong, but evil.
Following in this tradition, Juvenalian satire addresses perceived social evil through scorn, outrage, and savage ridicule. This form is often pessimistic, characterized by the use of irony, sarcasm, moral indignation and personal invective, with less emphasis on humor. Strongly polarized political satire can often be classified as Juvenalian.
A Juvenal satirist's goal is generally to provoke some sort of political or societal change because he sees his opponent or object as evil or harmful. A Juvenal satirist mocks "societal structure, power, and civilization" (Thomas) by exaggerating the words or position of his opponent in order to jeopardize their opponent's reputation and/or power. Jonathan Swift has been established as an author who "borrowed heavily from Juvenal's techniques in [his critique] of contemporary English society" (Podzemny).
Examples of Juvenalian satire:
Barnes, Julian, England, England.
Beatty, Paul, The Sellout.
Bradbury, Ray, Fahrenheit 451.
Brooker, Charlie, Black Mirror.
Bulgakov, Mikhail, Heart of a Dog.
Burgess, Anthony, A Clockwork Orange.
Burroughs, William, Naked Lunch.
Byron, George Gordon, Lord, Don Juan.
Barth, John, The Sot-Weed Factor; or, A Voyage to Maryland,—a satire, in which is described the laws, government, courts, and constitutions of the country, and also the buildings, feasts, frolics, entertainments, and drunken humors of the inhabitants in that part of America.
Ellis, Bret Easton, American Psycho.
Golding, William, Lord of the Flies.
Hall, Joseph, Virgidemiarum.
Heller, Joseph, Catch-22.
Huxley, Aldous, Brave New World.
Johnson, Samuel, London, an adaptation of Juvenal, Third Satire.
Kubrick, Stanley, Dr. Strangelove.
Mencken, HL, Libido for the Ugly.
Morris, Chris, Brass Eye.
———, The Day Today.
Orwell, George, Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Orwell, George, Animal Farm.
Palahniuk, Chuck, Fight Club.
Swift, Jonathan, A Modest Proposal.
Zamyatin, Yevgeny, We.
See Menippean satire.
Satire versus teasing
In the history of theatre there has always been a conflict between engagement and disengagement on politics and relevant issue, between satire and grotesque on one side, and jest with teasing on the other. Max Eastman defined the spectrum of satire in terms of "degrees of biting", as ranging from satire proper at the hot-end, and "kidding" at the violet-end; Eastman adopted the term kidding to denote what is just satirical in form, but is not really firing at the target. Nobel laureate satirical playwright Dario Fo pointed out the difference between satire and teasing (sfottò). Teasing is the reactionary side of the comic; it limits itself to a shallow parody of physical appearance. The side-effect of teasing is that it humanizes and draws sympathy for the powerful individual towards which it is directed. Satire instead uses the comic to go against power and its oppressions, has a subversive character, and a moral dimension which draws judgement against its targets. Fo formulated an operational criterion to tell real satire from sfottò, saying that real satire arouses an outraged and violent reaction, and that the more they try to stop you, the better is the job you are doing. Fo contends that, historically, people in positions of power have welcomed and encouraged good-humoured buffoonery, while modern day people in positions of power have tried to censor, ostracize and repress satire.
Teasing (sfottò) is an ancient form of simple buffoonery, a form of comedy without satire's subversive edge. Teasing includes light and affectionate parody, good-humoured mockery, simple one-dimensional poking fun, and benign spoofs. Teasing typically consists of an impersonation of someone monkeying around with his exterior attributes, tics, physical blemishes, voice and mannerisms, quirks, way of dressing and walking, and/or the phrases he typically repeats. By contrast, teasing never touches on the core issue, never makes a serious criticism judging the target with irony; it never harms the target's conduct, ideology and position of power; it never undermines the perception of his morality and cultural dimension. Sfottò directed towards a powerful individual makes him appear more human and draws sympathy towards him. Hermann Göring propagated jests and jokes against himself, with the aim of humanizing his image.
Classifications by topics
Types of satire can also be classified according to the topics it deals with. From the earliest times, at least since the plays of Aristophanes, the primary topics of literary satire have been politics, religion and sex. This is partly because these are the most pressing problems that affect anybody living in a society, and partly because these topics are usually taboo. Among these, politics in the broader sense is considered the pre-eminent topic of satire. Satire which targets the clergy is a type of political satire, while religious satire is that which targets religious beliefs. Satire on sex may overlap with blue comedy, off-color humor and dick jokes.
Scatology has a long literary association with satire, as it is a classical mode of the grotesque, the grotesque body and the satiric grotesque. Shit plays a fundamental role in satire because it symbolizes death, the turd being "the ultimate dead object". The satirical comparison of individuals or institutions with human excrement, exposes their "inherent inertness, corruption and dead-likeness". The ritual clowns of clown societies, like among the Pueblo Indians, have ceremonies with filth-eating. In other cultures, sin-eating is an apotropaic rite in which the sin-eater (also called filth-eater), by ingesting the food provided, takes "upon himself the sins of the departed". Satire about death overlaps with black humor and gallows humor.
Another classification by topics is the distinction between political satire, religious satire and satire of manners. Political satire is sometimes called topical satire, satire of manners is sometimes called satire of everyday life, and religious satire is sometimes called philosophical satire. Comedy of manners, sometimes also called satire of manners, criticizes mode of life of common people; political satire aims at behavior, manners of politicians, and vices of political systems. Historically, comedy of manners, which first appeared in British theater in 1620, has uncritically accepted the social code of the upper classes. Comedy in general accepts the rules of the social game, while satire subverts them.
Another analysis of satire is the spectrum of his possible tones: wit, ridicule, irony, sarcasm, cynicism, the sardonic and invective.
The type of humour that deals with creating laughter at the expense of the person telling the joke is called reflexive humour.Reflexive humour can take place at dual levels of directing humour at self or at the larger community the self identifies with. The audience's understanding of the context of reflexive humour is important for its receptivity and success . Satire is found not only in written literary forms. In preliterate cultures it manifests itself in ritual and folk forms, as well as in trickster tales and oral poetry.
It appears also in graphic arts, music, sculpture, dance, cartoon strips, and graffiti. Examples are Dada sculptures, Pop Art works, music of Gilbert and Sullivan and Erik Satie, punk and rock music. In modern media culture, stand-up comedy is an enclave in which satire can be introduced into mass media, challenging mainstream discourse. Comedy roasts, mock festivals, and stand-up comedians in nightclubs and concerts are the modern forms of ancient satiric rituals.
The satirical papyrus at the British Museum
Satirical ostracon showing a cat guarding geese, c.1120 BC, Egypt.
Figured ostracon showing a cat waiting on a mouse, Egypt
One of the earliest examples of what we might call satire, The Satire of the Trades, is in Egyptian writing from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. The text's apparent readers are students, tired of studying. It argues that their lot as scribes is not only useful, but far superior to that of the ordinary man. Scholars such as Helck think that the context was meant to be serious.
The Papyrus Anastasi I (late 2nd millennium BC) contains a satirical letter which first praises the virtues of its recipient, but then mocks the reader's meagre knowledge and achievements.
The Greeks had no word for what later would be called "satire", although the terms cynicism and parody were used. Modern critics call the Greek playwright Aristophanes one of the best known early satirists: his plays are known for their critical political and societal commentary, particularly for the political satire by which he criticized the powerful Cleon (as in The Knights). He is also notable for the persecution he underwent. Aristophanes' plays turned upon images of filth and disease. His bawdy style was adopted by Greek dramatist-comedian Menander. His early play Drunkenness contains an attack on the politician Callimedon.
The oldest form of satire still in use is the Menippean satire by Menippus of Gadara. His own writings are lost. Examples from his admirers and imitators mix seriousness and mockery in dialogues and present parodies before a background of diatribe. As in the case of Aristophanes plays, menippean satire turned upon images of filth and disease.
The first Roman to discuss satire critically was Quintilian, who invented the term to describe the writings of Gaius Lucilius. The two most prominent and influential ancient Roman satirists are Horace and Juvenal, who wrote during the early days of the Roman Empire. Other important satirists in ancient Latin are Gaius Lucilius and Persius. Satire in their work is much wider than in the modern sense of the word, including fantastic and highly coloured humorous writing with little or no real mocking intent. When Horace criticized Augustus, he used veiled ironic terms. In contrast, Pliny reports that the 6th-century-BC poet Hipponax wrote satirae that were so cruel that the offended hanged themselves.
In the 2nd century AD, Lucian wrote True History, a book satirizing the clearly unrealistic travelogues/adventures written by Ctesias, Iambulus, and Homer. He states that he was surprised they expected people to believe their lies, and stating that he, like them, has no actual knowledge or experience, but shall now tell lies as if he did. He goes on to describe a far more obviously extreme and unrealistic tale, involving interplanetary exploration, war among alien life forms, and life inside a 200 mile long whale back in the terrestrial ocean, all intended to make obvious the fallacies of books like Indica and The Odyssey.
Medieval Islamic world
Main articles: Arabic satire and Persian satire
Medieval Arabic poetry included the satiric genre hija. Satire was introduced into Arabic prose literature by the author Al-Jahiz in the 9th century. While dealing with serious topics in what are now known as anthropology, sociology and psychology, he introduced a satirical approach, "based on the premise that, however serious the subject under review, it could be made more interesting and thus achieve greater effect, if only one leavened the lump of solemnity by the insertion of a few amusing anecdotes or by the throwing out of some witty or paradoxical observations. He was well aware that, in treating of new themes in his prose works, he would have to employ a vocabulary of a nature more familiar in hija, satirical poetry." For example, in one of his zoological works, he satirized the preference for longer human penis size, writing: "If the length of the penis were a sign of honor, then the mule would belong to the (honorable tribe of) Quraysh". Another satirical story based on this preference was an Arabian Nights tale called "Ali with the Large Member".
In the 10th century, the writer Tha'alibi recorded satirical poetry written by the Arabic poets As-Salami and Abu Dulaf, with As-Salami praising Abu Dulaf's wide breadth of knowledge and then mocking his ability in all these subjects, and with Abu Dulaf responding back and satirizing As-Salami in return. An example of Arabic political satire included another 10th-century poet Jarir satirizing Farazdaq as "a transgressor of the Sharia" and later Arabic poets in turn using the term "Farazdaq-like" as a form of political satire.
The terms "comedy" and "satire" became synonymous after Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Islamic philosophers and writers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupil Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes. Due to cultural differences, they disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija (satirical poetry). They viewed comedy as simply the "art of reprehension", and made no reference to light and cheerful events, or troubled beginnings and happy endings, associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" thus gained a new semantic meaning in Medieval literature.
Ubayd Zakani introduced satire in Persian literature during the 14th century. His work is noted for its satire and obscene verses, often political or bawdy, and often cited in debates involving homosexual practices. He wrote the Resaleh-ye Delgosha, as well as Akhlaq al-Ashraf ("Ethics of the Aristocracy") and the famous humorous fable Masnavi Mush-O-Gorbeh (Mouse and Cat), which was a political satire. His non-satirical serious classical verses have also been regarded as very well written, in league with the other great works of Persian literature. Between 1905 and 1911, Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi and other Iranian writers wrote notable satires.
In the Early Middle Ages, examples of satire were the songs by Goliards or vagants now best known as an anthology called Carmina Burana and made famous as texts of a composition by the 20th-century composer Carl Orff. Satirical poetry is believed to have been popular, although little has survived. With the advent of the High Middle Ages and the birth of modern vernacular literature in the 12th century, it began to be used again, most notably by Chaucer. The disrespectful manner was considered "unchristian" and ignored, except for the moral satire, which mocked misbehaviour in Christian terms. Examples are Livre des Manières by Étienne de Fougères [fr] (~1178), and some of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Sometimes epic poetry (epos) was mocked, and even feudal society, but there was hardly a general interest in the genre.
Early modern western satire
Pieter Bruegel's 1568 satirical painting The Blind Leading the Blind.
Direct social commentary via satire returned with a vengeance in the 16th century, when farcical texts such as the works of François Rabelais tackled more serious issues (and incurred the wrath of the crown as a result).
Two major satirists of Europe in the Renaissance were Giovanni Boccaccio and François Rabelais. Other examples of Renaissance satire include Till Eulenspiegel, Reynard the Fox, Sebastian Brant's Narrenschiff (1494), Erasmus's Moriae Encomium (1509), Thomas More's Utopia (1516), and Carajicomedia (1519).
The Elizabethan (i.e. 16th-century English) writers thought of satire as related to the notoriously rude, coarse and sharp satyr play. Elizabethan "satire" (typically in pamphlet form) therefore contains more straightforward abuse than subtle irony. The French Huguenot Isaac Casaubon pointed out in 1605 that satire in the Roman fashion was something altogether more civilised. Casaubon discovered and published Quintilian's writing and presented the original meaning of the term (satira, not satyr), and the sense of wittiness (reflecting the "dishfull of fruits") became more important again. Seventeenth-century English satire once again aimed at the "amendment of vices" (Dryden).
In the 1590s a new wave of verse satire broke with the publication of Hall's Virgidemiarum, six books of verse satires targeting everything from literary fads to corrupt noblemen. Although Donne had already circulated satires in manuscript, Hall's was the first real attempt in English at verse satire on the Juvenalian model.[page needed] The success of his work combined with a national mood of disillusion in the last years of Elizabeth's reign triggered an avalanche of satire—much of it less conscious of classical models than Hall's — until the fashion was brought to an
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to DXYRSISPOT [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 02:52 plerothallis Swatches + Tattoo color palette help?
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Apologies if this is too far from the intended purpose of this sub! I'm getting a tattoo with colorwork and I wanted to put together some palette inspo to show the artist at my consultation. I find a lot of colors make me look jaundiced and that's something I'd really like to avoid with permanent body art! My clothes and makeup are mostly black with some greys/browns which isn't really much help since I'm not really going for a taupe tattoo. I also find it difficult to tell when colors suit me, so I'd love some suggestions of more traditionally "pretty" colors that go with my skin tone! submitted by plerothallis to Fairolives [link] [comments]
Swatchhes from left to right are:
Revlon Colorstay foundation in 180 Sand Beige-OK match for my face at its lightest.
Purito Cica Clearing Bb cream in #23 Natural Beige-best match for my face on an average day, but it's also fighting against redness there that won't be present where I get the tattoo.
Danessa Myricks Vision Cream Cover in N7-What I thought was a dead on match for my body skin at its darkest, but it's pulling way orange on me where it's sheer now that I'm watching it while pale. The more opaque part at the bottom still looks like the right color though so idk
Photo taken in soft white lighting, but has been color edited to be as true to life as I could get since I'm prone to inflammation and my camera loves to amp redness. I'm also holding a sheet of white paper in case that helps?
2023.03.25 02:51 jimsmith716 Welcome! Please Read Before Asking Your First Health Question Here
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to HealthQuestions [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 02:51 digodk Problem with grub after switching from Ubuntu to POP!_OS in dual boot
| || | submitted by digodk to pop_os [link] [comments]
I am new to the Linux ecosystem and recently installed Ubuntu alongside Windows 11, each in a separate SSD. The boot was being managed by grub, which allowed me to choose the operating system I wanted.
However, after installing POP!_OS using the "clean install" option in /dev/nvme0n1, where Ubuntu was previously installed (following this guide
), I realized that POP!_OS does not use grub but rather systemd-boot. Now when I boot my PC, I'm greeted by a non-booting grub CLI, like this one
, and typing exit allows me to boot into Windows. Additionally, Ubuntu still shows up as an option in the EFI boot list. https://preview.redd.it/ikpibllcjspa1.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fc49588d9ed0dd614b8ddf2287e68e2e34a2a727
When I boot from the POP!_OS live USB, I can see that POP!_OS was installed, and running sudo parted -ls outputs the following:
Model: USB DISK 2.0 (scsi) Disk /dev/sda: 7795MB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: msdos Disk Flags: Number Start End Size Type File system Flags 2 250kB 4444kB 4194kB primary esp 3 3190MB 7795MB 4605MB primary ext4 Model: SM2P32A8-256GC1 (nvme) Disk /dev/nvme0n1: 256GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Disk Flags: Number Start End Size File system Name Flags 1 2097kB 1074MB 1072MB fat32 boot, esp 2 1074MB 5369MB 4295MB fat32 recovery msftdata 3 5369MB 252GB 246GB ext4 4 252GB 256GB 4295MB linux-swap(v1) swap Model: SM2P32A8-512GC1 (nvme) Disk /dev/nvme1n1: 512GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Disk Flags: Number Start End Size File system Name Flags 1 1049kB 106MB 105MB fat32 EFI system partition boot, esp 2 106MB 123MB 16.8MB Microsoft reserved partition msftres 3 123MB 511GB 511GB ntfs Basic data partition msftdata 4 511GB 512GB 666MB ntfs hidden, diag Model: Unknown (unknown) Disk /dev/zram0: 17.2GB Sector size (logical/physical): 4096B/4096B Partition Table: loop Disk Flags: Number Start End Size File system Flags 1 0.00B 17.2GB 17.2GB linux-swap(v1)
I have tried the options "GRUB EFI Boot" and "EFI Boot - Pop!_OS (systemd-boot)" from this guide
but to no avail. I have also come across a few links like this stack exchange
, where it is suggested that I move the grub.cfg file from one folder to another, but I don't understand what I would be doing.
My goal is to be able to use systemd-boot since it is the default option for POP!_OS. However, I don't know how to remove grub and make sure systemd-boot is correctly installed.
Any help or pointing in the right direction would be greatly appreciated.
2023.03.25 02:51 Randomperson0012 Advice about taking on J3
I just got my J2 offer today and I’ve accepted and will be starting mid April. I’m still actively interviewing for J3 as I got a couple of interviews lined up for FT roles working in the InfoSec field.
J1 - 105K J2 - 90K
Both are fully remote, and everyone works from different parts of the US.
I’ve built up enough “good will” if you call it with J1 that I have the flexibility to move meetings if I need to but don’t know how much flexibility I’ll have moving meetings with J2 yet even though they said they have flex type hours.
I’ve done a Masters FT and worked FT in the past so I’ve sort of trained myself to handle a full workload. Just wanted people’s overall opinions about how quickly they incorporated J3 and if so is that typically a FT role or a contract role? I’m 25 if that matters at all also.
submitted by Randomperson0012
to overemployed [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 02:51 L3mmyKilmister Am I doing the right thing?
I (50F) have been with my boyfriend (45M) for around 3 years. He has 3 teenagers (18M, 17M, 19F). At first I was willing to overlook the stress and chaos of the household (honeymoon phase I guess). Gradually I find that it's too much for me. I'm looking at moving out. I am the type of person whose home is their sanctuary where I shut out the world. I don't invite people over. I like to go out and visit others but then go home to the quiet. It's very different with all of these people in my current situation. People in and out, their friends just walking in whenever without knocking. The kids have no plans on leaving any time soon. It' doesn't look like it'll be just the 2 of us any time soon, either.
This not what I'm used to or how I want to live. I'm not saying I'm right or wrong. It is what it is. So, am I wrong for wanting to go and admitting it's more than I want to deal with? Please be kind guys! Thanks!
TL;DR ! I (50F) don't think I can live with boyfriend (45M) because of the chaos his kids (18M,17M,19F) bring to the relationship.
submitted by L3mmyKilmister
to relationships [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 02:51 EwThatsWet Little thing I thought up while traveling. I think it’s an interesting idea, hopefully you do too. Thank you in advance for any feedback.
A breeze picked up from the west, pushing one side of my over-shirt against me while blowing the other side away. The air was cool and felt good passing through my hair. As I walked the narrow cobbled streets the breeze would change. It was strong in the open plaza where I began. It made the orange umbrellas of the cafe ripple like a row of small waves on a windy lake. It blew more concentrated down side streets and would die entirely in the confines of the more dense sections of the city. Were Ronda not such a beautiful city with such a rich history I would say it would be the perfect location for a multitude of wind turbines. Ancient Spanish streets are notoriously devoid of wind turbines in most cases, however. I was walking at a comfortable pace, hands in my pockets, trying not feel like a tourist. Not looking like a tourist is easy. Not feeling like one though is an exercise in meditation. To take in a new surrounding as if it was familiar, not in an effort to blend in, but rather, in an effort to appreciate a city as a local does. To take note of laundry drying on a line and to speculate as to the occasion for the sundress, flowing from the line in the wind like a flag for the new come Spanish spring season. To Smile to a man and his wife at a table outside their apartment door and to ask them, in Spanish, if the fruit at the stand I can see up ahead is any good today, because it was not last week. The man smiles and holds his hand up, flat with the palm down, and moves it up and down on one side then the other like a seesaw. Indicating it is not so good. I don’t know how the fruit was last week as I’ve only gotten in yesterday evening. The exchange though is natural and reminiscent of one a local would encounter. Putting the excitement of a new surrounding out of mind and replacing it with comparison is key. Places, like people, have archetypes. A walled Spanish city will have cobbled streets, stucco walls, and soft arches. What is different between them is the people who inhabit them. To get to the heart of who these people are you must immerse yourself in their world, as they see it. You can live your life through a dozen eyes in a new place, if you know how, and are willing to open your mind to new perspectives.
submitted by EwThatsWet
to KeepWriting [link] [comments]
2023.03.25 02:51 peaceful_bodhi When will notability add any significant feature/update?
Since the app moved to subscription model, I haven’t seen any significant update from notability apart from ‘pencil’ option and few bug fixes (while adding new bugs more than the fixes)
Math conversion and handwriting recognition was already purchased by me before app moved to subscription model
I am least worried about the cosmetic journal templates and stickers.
So I am wondering which new features developers are working on and what’s the roadmap to release those?
My expectations are- 1. Windows/web app support 2. Adding tables 3. Generating outlines/index for the note pages 4. Linking notes/pages in other notes 5. Tags and smart folders 6. Ability to export editable pdfs including handwriting (not flattened ones)
I am seriously considering moving to goodnotes as they are atleast responding to feature requests and also providing frequent updates.
Only thing stopping me from going to goodnotes is True dark mode, dash/dot lines, favorite toolbar and ability to change template of all pages at once.
submitted by peaceful_bodhi
to notabilityapp [link] [comments]