American standard tub spouts
European Beer > Yankee Craft Bubble Gum "beer"
2023.03.30 06:50 654123steve European Beer > Yankee Craft Bubble Gum "beer"
Hey you dweebs, neckbeards, flannel adorned urban gentrifiers and uppidity limousine rednecks. Guess what? American craft beer sucks. All you lot do is put bubble gum and carrots into beer and think you did something special. Oh wow your stout has vanilla, cinammon, plums, anise, oregano and condensed milk in it. How special when it shoots out your battered asshole as a stream of shitpiss 75 minutes later.
You gun toating cowboys cant stop yourselves from boofing the newst octuple dry hopped spaghetti rhubarb black ipa and dont mind dropping 25€ on a 4 pack from your local bourgy generically named pop craft "brewery".
What gets me is you have great European founded beers with history and class like Yyngilung yet you'd rather boof a barrel aged chocolate lambic from Hop Humper Brewpub.
Let me educate you savages on artisinal European beers. The best beers in the world, with history and tradition and meticulous standards and quality control. If you ever get tired of Period Blood Porter and Cucumber Tobasco Lagers, take a look at this list and go find one of these gifts from god. You will. be thanking me later and so will your battered asshole.
Carlsberg, Carling, Heineken, Newcastle, Guiness, Peroni, Warsteiner, Svyturys, Zywiec, Pilsner Urquell, Staropram, Amstel, Stella Artois, Budweiser, Estrella.
You can never go wrong with artisinal European masterwork beer.
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2023.03.30 06:43 Kimba93 Are the people who talk about "No one cares about men" and "We need to talk more about men's mental health" really serious about it, or are they virtue-signaling?
Until recently, I thought that male loneliness and men's mental health was a serious issue. I came to the idea because of the statistics about male suicide and alcohol- and drug-related deaths of men, because of the "Man up" and "Boys don't cry" stigma, and because it's an always returning meme in social media that someone says "No one cares about men" and it gets massive amount of attention like this video
with a million views and everyone says "Yes, it's true" (not to forget the stories of Norah Vincent or trans men who say the experienced emotional starvation after transitioning).
But I think I was dead wrong. Right now I lean to the belief that men don't really suffer from a loneliness and mental health crisis, saying this is just virtue-signaling. The reasons for this is that I analyzed the whole issue and saw my own experiences when tried to talk about the issue. Before I go any further, I want to say:
- The male suicide rates, in my opinion, aren't caused by higher rates of serious depression among men. There is in German a word called "Bilanzsuizid", it means committing suicide not because you are depressed, but because you didn't achieve your goals and don't want to live anymore (you don't feel depressed, you just don't see a reason to exist anymore). The only English word I found for this is "rational suicide." I think these suicides are much more common among men. Men have higher expectations for their life outcomes than women and are therefore more likely to end disappointed. This can also explain why whites have much higher suicide rates than blacks (whites have higher expectations for their life outcomes than blacks).
- The alcohol- and drug-related deaths for men might be just because men are more likely to be risk-takers. Men are also more likely to die in car accidents or while doing dangerous hobbys. If anything, taking alcohol and drugs might lead to depression and not the other way around (although cases for the latter can exist too).
- "Men have no friends" - yeah, about that ... I surprisingly didn't find that much evidence that men have fewer friends and are less outgoing that women. There are some studies that say so, but others say it's equal. Even more surprising, there's not much evidence that having a family and many friends make you happier (this is true for both genders). It seems to really depend on quality.
So yeah, I don't think we have a massive amount of loneliness and undiagnosed depression among men that explains all the male surplus in suicides and alcohol- and drug-related deaths (and just as a sidenote, the mass shootings in the U.S. are a gun problem. Mental health issues are not higher in the U.S. than other countries, but Americans have more guns and a terrible gun culture).
What about all the "Men are not allowed to show weakness" narrative? This is probably the biggest lie in the whole debate. It's very easy to see that men are alowed to show weakness. The only "rule" is that you have to find the right group. People who are your enemies might make fun of you if show vulnerability, yes, but your friends or peers will usually not
. In the political sphere, you can see how Jordan Peterson's crying marathon was not punished by conservatives, the same way a leftist man who shows vulnerability won't be punished by leftists, and the same is true in all other real-life spheres. The notion that a man who expresses sadness or vulnerability to his peers (whether they're men or women) will get immediately ridiculed is incredibly outlandish. The men who say otherwise are talking about a self-imposed rule that they externalize instead of acknowledging that it comes from themselves. It's the same with women who say that beauty standards are oppressive to women. The reality is that this is a self-imposed thing, literally no one cares if a woman wears make-up or not. Women are not oppressed by beauty standards, and men are not oppressed by "not showing weakness" standards. Every man can easily find people who he can talk about his vulnerabilities (and cry if necessary) without being ridiculed. This leads to my conclusion: Telling men to talk more about their feelings is unnecessary
. Not because "Men are different than women, we don't need to talk", no, it's because (1) I don't think men's mental health issues cause the higher rates in male suicides, drug- and alcohol-related deaths and mass shootings, and because (2) men can already talk about their feelings despite all the myths saying otherwise, so if they don't do it, they probably don't want it. There's no one holding them back, no stigma, no oppression, nothing. I never was someone who said therapy is a wonder solution (there's many legitimate critics to be made about therapy). However, I thought it should be destigmatized and offered more. Now I don't think that we should offer it more. It has nothing to do with "Therapy is feminized" or "Therapy has worse outcomes for men" (there's no evidence for that), it's just that it's clear that many men just don't want to go to therapy, and if you don't believe in therapy, going to therapy won't help you
Many things said in social media are just virtue-signaling. The "No one cares about men" "We need to talk more about men's mental health" is probably just a part of it. It sounds good, but it's not really a thing (you can also see how many men who complain about not getting compliments actually mean they don't get sexual compliments from beautiful women). And at the end of the day, men talking less about their feelings might not even be true. I'm reminded about how in a mensrights post, someone commented
how talking about a problem doesn't help him, men need solutions, etc., the usual men-don't-need-therapy-rant. One commenter answered
100%. What good does talking about something do? I want solutions. I don't want to waste time talking about my problems. How does that help anyone?
I immediately saw the irony and responded
Literally this whole sub is talking about problems without offering solutions.
Yeah but this is free. If I'm paying for therapy, they damn well better be offering some solutions
Men might not show vulnerability, but they do vent all the time. What is this other than talking about their feelings? Complaining about feminism attacking men ("patriarchy", "toxic masculinity"), women having too high dating standards, etc. might be just a "male" form of therapy. No one is offering solutions, they are just endlessly talking about their feelings. It was right in front of our eyes all the time.
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2023.03.30 06:41 flenserdc No, 62% of Korean men do not abuse their wives -- The Atlantic has issued a correction, at my urging
Here's the story. Last week this Atlantic article was posted on neoliberal
The original version of the article included this startling claim: Indeed, a 2016 survey by the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family found that 62 percent of South Korean women had experienced intimate-partner violence, a category that included emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as a range of controlling behaviors.
Many users here fixated on this claim, and the comments section was full of disparaging comments about Korean men. The only problem? The statistic turns out to be completely bogus. It appears to result from a misleading translation in the english-language version of the Ministry's report (the correction notice on the Atlantic article tells a different story about the source of the error, but I don't believe them), which you can find here: http://www.mogef.go.keng/lw/eng_lw_s001d.do?mid=eng003&bbtSn=704933
Here's the key section: Spousal violence □ Prevalence of Spousal violence ○ The study surveyed the victimization and perpetration of physical, psychological, economic, and sexual violence among married men and women over the age of 19. ○ As for women, 12.1% had been victims of spousal violence in the last year: 3.3% being physical, 10.5% psychological, 2.4% economic, and 2.3% sexual violence. 9.1% of women reported that they had perpetrated spousal violence. ○ As for men, 8.6% had been victimized by their spouse in the last year: 1.6% physical, 7.7% psychological, 0.8% economic, and 0.3% sexual violence. 11.6% of men reported that they had perpetrated spousal violence. ○ 18.1% of women were initially victims of spousal violence within the first year of marriage and 44.2% after the first year but within the first five. 62.3% of women experienced violence within the first five years of marriage, and 2.0% before the marriage.
Someone not critically thinking too hard might look at that last point and interpret it as saying that 62.3% of all Korean women have been abused. But that's not what it's saying -- it's saying that, of women who've been abused
, 62.3% of them were abused in the first five years of their marriage.
There are several giveaways for why this is the correct interpretation: first, it's prima facie
implausible that considerably more than 62.3% of Korean men abuse their wives, given that Korea has an extremely low violent crime rate. Second, there's basically no way to get from a 12.1% annual abuse rate to a 62.3% rate over five years -- this implies that wife-beaters in Korea have zero recidivism! (I was mass downvoted for pointing this out in the original thread). Third, the report doesn't mention how many men start abusing their wives after five years, an omission that would be inexplicable unless the authors of the report assume the reader can easily deduce this figure for themselves by subtracting the other numbers from 100%.
I subsequently confirmed my suspicions by google translating the original, Korean-language version of the report, available here: http://www.mogef.go.kmp/pcd/mp_pcd_s001d.do?mid=plc504&bbtSn=83
On pages 91-92 of the Korean-language version of the report, it's absolutely clear that the 62.3% figure is not intended as a proportion of all Korean women. These are the figures presented there: First experienced abuse before marriage: 2.0% First experienced abuse in first year of marriage: 18.1% First experienced abuse in years 2-5 of marriage: 44.2% First experienced abuse in first five years of marriage: 62.3% First experienced abuse after five years of marriage: 35.7%
Note that these figures sum to 100%. On page 92, the report gives similar figures for men who've been abused, which also sum to 100%. If there was any remaining doubt I'm right about this, my interpretation was also confirmed by a Korean-speaking neoliberal
user who read the original report.
What's the correct figure for how many Korean women have experienced abuse? Well, since The Atlantic fixed their error after I contacted them, you can find it in the current version of the article: A 2021 study by the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family found that 16 percent of South Korean women had experienced some kind of intimate-partner violence—a category that included emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as a range of controlling behaviors.
I found this figure in the Hankyoreh, a Korean newspaper, and sent it to The Atlantic: https://english.hani.co.karti/english_edition/e_national/1056632.html
So The Atlantic was originally off by a factor of 4. Oh, and a 16% combined emotional/physical/sexual abuse rate is actually extremely low by international standards -- the analogous figure for American women is more than twice as high! Whoops. Sorry, Koreans, we accidentally printed misinformation smearing you as a bunch of wife-beaters for our millions of readers. Don't worry, though, I'm sure this type of thing has never caused problems for any ethnic group in the past.
I feel obliged to add that neoliberal
did not cover themselves in glory in the thread on this article. Just to be clear, guys, comments insinuating that Asians are all backwards, patriarchal abusers are racist. So are comments about how Korean women should ditch Korean men and maybe find love overseas (with a white guy?) instead. I have Korean friends who are devoted, loving husbands, they don't deserve to be maligned like this. It almost seems like the users here will tolerate any amount of racism so long as it's packaged with enough misandry: "Its not Koreans
that are the problem, it's those pesky Korean men
." Not okay guys. Feminism is not an excuse for bigotry.
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2023.03.30 06:37 Choice-Bake7922 Add uranium to minecraft
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium radioactively decays by emitting an alpha particle. The half-life of this decay varies between 159,200 and 4.5 billion years for different isotopes, making them useful for dating the age of the Earth. The most common isotopes in natural uranium are uranium-238 (which has 146 neutrons and accounts for over 99% of uranium on Earth) and uranium-235 (which has 143 neutrons). Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, and slightly lower than that of gold or tungsten. It occurs naturally in low concentrations of a few parts per million in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite. Many contemporary uses of uranium exploit its unique nuclear properties. Uranium-235 is the only naturally occurring fissile isotope, which makes it widely used in nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons. However, because of the tiny concentrations found in nature, uranium needs to undergo enrichment so that enough uranium-235 is present. Uranium-238 is fissionable by fast neutrons, and is fertile, meaning it can be transmuted to fissile plutonium-239 in a nuclear reactor. Another fissile isotope, uranium-233, can be produced from natural thorium and is studied for future industrial use in nuclear technology. Uranium-238 has a small probability for spontaneous fission or even induced fission with fast neutrons; uranium-235, and to a lesser degree uranium-233, have a much higher fission cross-section for slow neutrons. In sufficient concentration, these isotopes maintain a sustained nuclear chain reaction. This generates the heat in nuclear power reactors, and produces the fissile material for nuclear weapons. Depleted uranium (238U) is used in kinetic energy penetrators and armor plating.
The 1789 discovery of uranium in the mineral pitchblende is credited to Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who named the new element after the recently discovered planet Uranus. Eugène-Melchior Péligot was the first person to isolate the metal and its radioactive properties were discovered in 1896 by Henri Becquerel. Research by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, Enrico Fermi and others, such as J. Robert Oppenheimer starting in 1934 led to its use as a fuel in the nuclear power industry and in Little Boy, the first nuclear weapon used in war. An ensuing arms race during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons that used uranium metal and uranium-derived plutonium-239. Dismantling of these weapons and related nuclear facilities is carried out within various nuclear disarmament programs and costs billions of dollars. Weapon-grade uranium obtained from nuclear weapons is diluted with uranium-238 and reused as fuel for nuclear reactors. The development and deployment of these nuclear reactors continue on a global base as they are powerful sources of CO2-free energy. Spent nuclear fuel forms radioactive waste, which mostly consists of uranium-238 and poses significant health threat and environmental impact. Uranium is a silvery white, weakly radioactive metal. It has a Mohs hardness of 6, sufficient to scratch glass and approximately equal to that of titanium, rhodium, manganese and niobium. It is malleable, ductile, slightly paramagnetic, strongly electropositive and a poor electrical conductor. Uranium metal has a very high density of 19.1 g/cm3, denser than lead (11.3 g/cm3), but slightly less dense than tungsten and gold (19.3 g/cm3).
Uranium metal reacts with almost all non-metal elements (with the exception of the noble gases) and their compounds, with reactivity increasing with temperature. Hydrochloric and nitric acids dissolve uranium, but non-oxidizing acids other than hydrochloric acid attack the element very slowly. When finely divided, it can react with cold water; in air, uranium metal becomes coated with a dark layer of uranium oxide. Uranium in ores is extracted chemically and converted into uranium dioxide or other chemical forms usable in industry.
Uranium-235 was the first isotope that was found to be fissile. Other naturally occurring isotopes are fissionable, but not fissile. On bombardment with slow neutrons, its uranium-235 isotope will most of the time divide into two smaller nuclei, releasing nuclear binding energy and more neutrons. If too many of these neutrons are absorbed by other uranium-235 nuclei, a nuclear chain reaction occurs that results in a burst of heat or (in special circumstances) an explosion. In a nuclear reactor, such a chain reaction is slowed and controlled by a neutron poison, absorbing some of the free neutrons. Such neutron absorbent materials are often part of reactor control rods (see nuclear reactor physics for a description of this process of reactor control).
As little as 15 lb (6.8 kg) of uranium-235 can be used to make an atomic bomb. The nuclear weapon detonated over Hiroshima, called Little Boy, relied on uranium fission. However, the first nuclear bomb (the Gadget used at Trinity) and the bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki (Fat Man) were both plutonium bombs.
Uranium metal has three allotropic forms:
α (orthorhombic) stable up to 668 °C (1,234 °F). Orthorhombic, space group No. 63, Cmcm, lattice parameters a = 285.4 pm, b = 587 pm, c = 495.5 pm. β (tetragonal) stable from 668 to 775 °C (1,234 to 1,427 °F). Tetragonal, space group P42/mnm, P42nm, or P4n2, lattice parameters a = 565.6 pm, b = c = 1075.9 pm. γ (body-centered cubic) from 775 °C (1,427 °F) to melting point—this is the most malleable and ductile state. Body-centered cubic, lattice parameter a = 352.4 pm.
The major application of uranium in the military sector is in high-density penetrators. This ammunition consists of depleted uranium (DU) alloyed with 1–2% other elements, such as titanium or molybdenum. At high impact speed, the density, hardness, and pyrophoricity of the projectile enable the destruction of heavily armored targets. Tank armor and other removable vehicle armor can also be hardened with depleted uranium plates. The use of depleted uranium became politically and environmentally contentious after the use of such munitions by the US, UK and other countries during wars in the Persian Gulf and the Balkans raised questions concerning uranium compounds left in the soil (see Gulf War syndrome).
Depleted uranium is also used as a shielding material in some containers used to store and transport radioactive materials. While the metal itself is radioactive, its high density makes it more effective than lead in halting radiation from strong sources such as radium. Other uses of depleted uranium include counterweights for aircraft control surfaces, as ballast for missile re-entry vehicles and as a shielding material. Due to its high density, this material is found in inertial guidance systems and in gyroscopic compasses. Depleted uranium is preferred over similarly dense metals due to its ability to be easily machined and cast as well as its relatively low cost. The main risk of exposure to depleted uranium is chemical poisoning by uranium oxide rather than radioactivity (uranium being only a weak alpha emitter).
During the later stages of World War II, the entire Cold War, and to a lesser extent afterwards, uranium-235 has been used as the fissile explosive material to produce nuclear weapons. Initially, two major types of fission bombs were built: a relatively simple device that uses uranium-235 and a more complicated mechanism that uses plutonium-239 derived from uranium-238. Later, a much more complicated and far more powerful type of fission/fusion bomb (thermonuclear weapon) was built, that uses a plutonium-based device to cause a mixture of tritium and deuterium to undergo nuclear fusion. Such bombs are jacketed in a non-fissile (unenriched) uranium case, and they derive more than half their power from the fission of this material by fast neutrons from the nuclear fusion process.
The main use of uranium in the civilian sector is to fuel nuclear power plants. One kilogram of uranium-235 can theoretically produce about 20 terajoules of energy (2×1013 joules), assuming complete fission; as much energy as 1.5 million kilograms (1,500 tonnes) of coal.
Commercial nuclear power plants use fuel that is typically enriched to around 3% uranium-235. The CANDU and Magnox designs are the only commercial reactors capable of using unenriched uranium fuel. Fuel used for United States Navy reactors is typically highly enriched in uranium-235 (the exact values are classified). In a breeder reactor, uranium-238 can also be converted into plutonium through the following reaction:
Before (and, occasionally, after) the discovery of radioactivity, uranium was primarily used in small amounts for yellow glass and pottery glazes, such as uranium glass and in Fiestaware.
The discovery and isolation of radium in uranium ore (pitchblende) by Marie Curie sparked the development of uranium mining to extract the radium, which was used to make glow-in-the-dark paints for clock and aircraft dials. This left a prodigious quantity of uranium as a waste product, since it takes three tonnes of uranium to extract one gram of radium. This waste product was diverted to the glazing industry, making uranium glazes very inexpensive and abundant. Besides the pottery glazes, uranium tile glazes accounted for the bulk of the use, including common bathroom and kitchen tiles which can be produced in green, yellow, mauve, black, blue, red and other colors.
Uranium was also used in photographic chemicals (especially uranium nitrate as a toner), in lamp filaments for stage lighting bulbs, to improve the appearance of dentures, and in the leather and wood industries for stains and dyes. Uranium salts are mordants of silk or wool. Uranyl acetate and uranyl formate are used as electron-dense "stains" in transmission electron microscopy, to increase the contrast of biological specimens in ultrathin sections and in negative staining of viruses, isolated cell organelles and macromolecules.
The discovery of the radioactivity of uranium ushered in additional scientific and practical uses of the element. The long half-life of the isotope uranium-238 (4.47×109 years) makes it well-suited for use in estimating the age of the earliest igneous rocks and for other types of radiometric dating, including uranium–thorium dating, uranium–lead dating and uranium–uranium dating. Uranium metal is used for X-ray targets in the making of high-energy X-rays.
The use of uranium in its natural oxide form dates back to at least the year 79 CE, when it was used in the Roman Empire to add a yellow color to ceramic glazes. Yellow glass with 1% uranium oxide was found in a Roman villa on Cape Posillipo in the Bay of Naples, Italy, by R. T. Gunther of the University of Oxford in 1912. Starting in the late Middle Ages, pitchblende was extracted from the Habsburg silver mines in Joachimsthal, Bohemia (now Jáchymov in the Czech Republic), and was used as a coloring agent in the local glassmaking industry. In the early 19th century, the world's only known sources of uranium ore were these mines. Mining for uranium in the Ore Mountains ceased on the German side after the Cold War ended and SDAG Wismut was wound down. On the Czech side there were attempts during the uranium price bubble of 2007 to restart mining, but those were quickly abandoned following a fall in uranium prices.
The discovery of the element is credited to the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth. While he was working in his experimental laboratory in Berlin in 1789, Klaproth was able to precipitate a yellow compound (likely sodium diuranate) by dissolving pitchblende in nitric acid and neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide. Klaproth assumed the yellow substance was the oxide of a yet-undiscovered element and heated it with charcoal to obtain a black powder, which he thought was the newly discovered metal itself (in fact, that powder was an oxide of uranium). He named the newly discovered element after the planet Uranus (named after the primordial Greek god of the sky), which had been discovered eight years earlier by William Herschel.
In 1841, Eugène-Melchior Péligot, Professor of Analytical Chemistry at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (Central School of Arts and Manufactures) in Paris, isolated the first sample of uranium metal by heating uranium tetrachloride with potassium.
Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity by using uranium in 1896. Becquerel made the discovery in Paris by leaving a sample of a uranium salt, K2UO2(SO4)2 (potassium uranyl sulfate), on top of an unexposed photographic plate in a drawer and noting that the plate had become "fogged". He determined that a form of invisible light or rays emitted by uranium had exposed the plate.
During World War I when the Central Powers suffered a shortage of molybdenum to make artillery gun barrels and high speed tool steels they routinely substituted ferrouranium alloys which present many of the same physical characteristics. When this practice became known in 1916 the USA government requested several prominent universities to research these uses for uranium and tools made with these formulas remained in use for several decades only ending when the Manhattan Project and the Cold War placed a large demand on uranium for fission research and weapon development.
A team led by Enrico Fermi in 1934 observed that bombarding uranium with neutrons produces the emission of beta rays (electrons or positrons from the elements produced; see beta particle). The fission products were at first mistaken for new elements with atomic numbers 93 and 94, which the Dean of the Faculty of Rome, Orso Mario Corbino, christened ausonium and hesperium, respectively. The experiments leading to the discovery of uranium's ability to fission (break apart) into lighter elements and release binding energy were conducted by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Hahn's laboratory in Berlin. Lise Meitner and her nephew, the physicist Otto Robert Frisch, published the physical explanation in February 1939 and named the process "nuclear fission". Soon after, Fermi hypothesized that the fission of uranium might release enough neutrons to sustain a fission reaction. Confirmation of this hypothesis came in 1939, and later work found that on average about 2.5 neutrons are released by each fission of the rare uranium isotope uranium-235. Fermi urged Alfred O. C. Nier to separate uranium isotopes for determination of the fissile component, and on 29 February 1940, Nier used an instrument he built at the University of Minnesota to separate the world's first uranium-235 sample in the Tate Laboratory. After mailed to Columbia University's cyclotron, John Dunning confirmed the sample to be the isolated fissile material on 1 March. Further work found that the far more common uranium-238 isotope can be transmuted into plutonium, which, like uranium-235, is also fissile by thermal neutrons. These discoveries led numerous countries to begin working on the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Despite fission having been discovered in Germany, the Uranverein ("uranium club") Germany's wartime project to research nuclear power and/or weapons was hampered by limited resources, infighting, the exile or non-involvement of several prominent scientists in the field and several crucial mistakes such as failing to account for impurities in available graphite samples which made it appear less suitable as a neutron moderator than it is in reality. Germany's attempts to build a natural uranium / heavy water reactor had not come close to reaching criticality by the time the Americans reached Haigerloch, the site of the last German wartime reactor experiment.
On 2 December 1942, as part of the Manhattan Project, another team led by Enrico Fermi was able to initiate the first artificial self-sustained nuclear chain reaction, Chicago Pile-1. An initial plan using enriched uranium-235 was abandoned as it was as yet unavailable in sufficient quantities. Working in a lab below the stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, the team created the conditions needed for such a reaction by piling together 360 tonnes of graphite, 53 tonnes of uranium oxide, and 5.5 tonnes of uranium metal, a majority of which was supplied by Westinghouse Lamp Plant in a makeshift production process.
Two major types of atomic bombs were developed by the United States during World War II: a uranium-based device (codenamed "Little Boy") whose fissile material was highly enriched uranium, and a plutonium-based device (see Trinity test and "Fat Man") whose plutonium was derived from uranium-238. The uranium-based Little Boy device became the first nuclear weapon used in war when it was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945. Exploding with a yield equivalent to 12,500 tonnes of trinitrotoluene, the blast and thermal wave of the bomb destroyed nearly 50,000 buildings and killed approximately 75,000 people (see Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki). Initially it was believed that uranium was relatively rare, and that nuclear proliferation could be avoided by simply buying up all known uranium stocks, but within a decade large deposits of it were discovered in many places around the world.
The X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile) and was the first reactor designed and built for continuous operation. Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor I, located at the Atomic Energy Commission's National Reactor Testing Station near Arco, Idaho, became the first nuclear reactor to create electricity on 20 December 1951. Initially, four 150-watt light bulbs were lit by the reactor, but improvements eventually enabled it to power the whole facility (later, the town of Arco became the first in the world to have all its electricity come from nuclear power generated by BORAX-III, another reactor designed and operated by Argonne National Laboratory). The world's first commercial scale nuclear power station, Obninsk in the Soviet Union, began generation with its reactor AM-1 on 27 June 1954. Other early nuclear power plants were Calder Hall in England, which began generation on 17 October 1956, and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, which began on 26 May 1958. Nuclear power was used for the first time for propulsion by a submarine, the USS Nautilus, in 1954.
Prehistoric naturally occurring fission Main article: Natural nuclear fission reactor In 1972, the French physicist Francis Perrin discovered fifteen ancient and no longer active natural nuclear fission reactors in three separate ore deposits at the Oklo mine in Gabon, West Africa, collectively known as the Oklo Fossil Reactors. The ore deposit is 1.7 billion years old; then, uranium-235 constituted about 3% of the total uranium on Earth. This is high enough to permit a sustained nuclear fission chain reaction to occur, provided other supporting conditions exist. The capacity of the surrounding sediment to contain the health-threatening nuclear waste products has been cited by the U.S. federal government as supporting evidence for the feasibility to store spent nuclear fuel at the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository.
Above-ground nuclear tests by the Soviet Union and the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s and by France into the 1970s and 1980s spread a significant amount of fallout from uranium daughter isotopes around the world. Additional fallout and pollution occurred from several nuclear accidents.
Uranium miners have a higher incidence of cancer. An excess risk of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners, for example, has been documented and linked to their occupation. The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, a 1990 law in the US, required $100,000 in "compassion payments" to uranium miners diagnosed with cancer or other respiratory ailments.
During the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, huge stockpiles of uranium were amassed and tens of thousands of nuclear weapons were created using enriched uranium and plutonium made from uranium. After the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, an estimated 600 short tons (540 metric tons) of highly enriched weapons grade uranium (enough to make 40,000 nuclear warheads) had been stored in often inadequately guarded facilities in the Russian Federation and several other former Soviet states. Police in Asia, Europe, and South America on at least 16 occasions from 1993 to 2005 have intercepted shipments of smuggled bomb-grade uranium or plutonium, most of which was from ex-Soviet sources. From 1993 to 2005 the Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program, operated by the federal government of the United States, spent approximately US $550 million to help safeguard uranium and plutonium stockpiles in Russia. This money was used for improvements and security enhancements at research and storage facilities.
Safety of nuclear facilities in Russia has been significantly improved since the stabilization of political and economical turmoil of the early 1990s. For example, in 1993 there were 29 incidents ranking above level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale, and this number dropped under four per year in 1995–2003. The number of employers receiving annual radiation doses above 20 mSv, which is equivalent to a single full-body CT scan, saw a strong decline around 2000. In November 2015, the Russian government approved a federal program for nuclear and radiation safety for 2016 to 2030 with a budget of 562 billion rubles (ca. 8 billion dollars). Its key issue is "the deferred liabilities accumulated during the 70 years of the nuclear industry, particularly during the time of the Soviet Union". Approximately 73% of the budget will be spent on decommissioning aged and obsolete nuclear reactors and nuclear facilities, especially those involved in state defense programs; 20% will go in processing and disposal of nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, and 5% into monitoring and ensuring of nuclear and radiation safety.
Along with all elements having atomic weights higher than that of iron, uranium is only naturally formed by the r-process (rapid neutron capture) in supernovae and neutron star mergers. Primordial thorium and uranium are only produced in the r-process, because the s-process (slow neutron capture) is too slow and cannot pass the gap of instability after bismuth. Besides the two extant primordial uranium isotopes, 235U and 238U, the r-process also produced significant quantities of 236U, which has a shorter half-life and so is an extinct radionuclide, having long since decayed completely to 232Th. Uranium-236 was itself enriched by the decay of 244Pu, accounting for the observed higher-than-expected abundance of thorium and lower-than-expected abundance of uranium. While the natural abundance of uranium has been supplemented by the decay of extinct 242Pu (half-life 0.375 million years) and 247Cm (half-life 16 million years), producing 238U and 235U respectively, this occurred to an almost negligible extent due to the shorter half-lives of these parents and their lower production than 236U and 244Pu, the parents of thorium: the 247Cm:235U ratio at the formation of the Solar System was (7.0±1.6)×10−5.
Uranium is a naturally occurring element that can be found in low levels within all rock, soil, and water. Uranium is the 51st element in order of abundance in the Earth's crust. Uranium is also the highest-numbered element to be found naturally in significant quantities on Earth and is almost always found combined with other elements. The decay of uranium, thorium, and potassium-40 in the Earth's mantle is thought to be the main source of heat that keeps the Earth's outer core in the liquid state and drives mantle convection, which in turn drives plate tectonics.
Uranium's average concentration in the Earth's crust is (depending on the reference) 2 to 4 parts per million, or about 40 times as abundant as silver. The Earth's crust from the surface to 25 km (15 mi) down is calculated to contain 1017 kg (2×1017 lb) of uranium while the oceans may contain 1013 kg (2×1013 lb). The concentration of uranium in soil ranges from 0.7 to 11 parts per million (up to 15 parts per million in farmland soil due to use of phosphate fertilizers), and its concentration in sea water is 3 parts per billion.
Uranium is more plentiful than antimony, tin, cadmium, mercury, or silver, and it is about as abundant as arsenic or molybdenum. Uranium is found in hundreds of minerals, including uraninite (the most common uranium ore), carnotite, autunite, uranophane, torbernite, and coffinite. Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as phosphate rock deposits, and minerals such as lignite, and monazite sands in uranium-rich ores (it is recovered commercially from sources with as little as 0.1% uranium).
Some bacteria, such as Shewanella putrefaciens, Geobacter metallireducens and some strains of Burkholderia fungorum, use uranium for their growth and convert U(VI) to U(IV). Recent research suggests that this pathway includes reduction of the soluble U(VI) via an intermediate U(V) pentavalent state. Other organisms, such as the lichen Trapelia involuta or microorganisms such as the bacterium Citrobacter, can absorb concentrations of uranium that are up to 300 times the level of their environment. Citrobacter species absorb uranyl ions when given glycerol phosphate (or other similar organic phosphates). After one day, one gram of bacteria can encrust themselves with nine grams of uranyl phosphate crystals; this creates the possibility that these organisms could be used in bioremediation to decontaminate uranium-polluted water. The proteobacterium Geobacter has also been shown to bioremediate uranium in ground water. The mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices increases uranium content in the roots of its symbiotic plant.
In nature, uranium(VI) forms highly soluble carbonate complexes at alkaline pH. This leads to an increase in mobility and availability of uranium to groundwater and soil from nuclear wastes which leads to health hazards. However, it is difficult to precipitate uranium as phosphate in the presence of excess carbonate at alkaline pH. A Sphingomonas sp. strain BSAR-1 has been found to express a high activity alkaline phosphatase (PhoK) that has been applied for bioprecipitation of uranium as uranyl phosphate species from alkaline solutions. The precipitation ability was enhanced by overexpressing PhoK protein in E. coli.
Plants absorb some uranium from soil. Dry weight concentrations of uranium in plants range from 5 to 60 parts per billion, and ash from burnt wood can have concentrations up to 4 parts per million. Dry weight concentrations of uranium in food plants are typically lower with one to two micrograms per day ingested through the food people eat.
Production and mining Main article: Uranium mining Worldwide production of uranium in 2021 amounted to 48,332 tonnes, of which 21,819 t (45%) was mined in Kazakhstan. Other important urmom mining countries are Namibia (5,753 t), Canada (4,693 t), Australia (4,192 t), Uzbekistan (3,500 t), and Russia (2,635 t).
Uranium ore is mined in several ways: by open pit, underground, in-situ leaching, and borehole mining (see uranium mining). Low-grade uranium ore mined typically contains 0.01 to 0.25% uranium oxides. Extensive measures must be employed to extract the metal from its ore. High-grade ores found in Athabasca Basin deposits in Saskatchewan, Canada can contain up to 23% uranium oxides on average. Uranium ore is crushed and rendered into a fine powder and then leached with either an acid or alkali. The leachate is subjected to one of several sequences of precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The resulting mixture, called yellowcake, contains at least 75% uranium oxides U3O8. Yellowcake is then calcined to remove impurities from the milling process before refining and conversion.
Commercial-grade uranium can be produced through the reduction of uranium halides with alkali or alkaline earth metals. Uranium metal can also be prepared through electrolysis of KUF 5 or UF 4, dissolved in molten calcium chloride (CaCl 2) and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Very pure uranium is produced through the thermal decomposition of uranium halides on a hot filament.
It is estimated that 6.1 million tonnes of uranium exists in ore reserves that are economically viable at US$130 per kg of uranium, while 35 million tonnes are classed as mineral resources (reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction).
Australia has 28% of the world's known uranium ore reserves and the world's largest single uranium deposit is located at the Olympic Dam Mine in South Australia. There is a significant reserve of uranium in Bakouma, a sub-prefecture in the prefecture of Mbomou in the Central African Republic.
Some uranium also originates from dismantled nuclear weapons. For example, in 1993–2013 Russia supplied the United States with 15,000 tonnes of low-enriched uranium within the Megatons to Megawatts Program.
An additional 4.6 billion tonnes of uranium are estimated to be dissolved in sea water (Japanese scientists in the 1980s showed that extraction of uranium from sea water using ion exchangers was technically feasible). There have been experiments to extract uranium from sea water, but the yield has been low due to the carbonate present in the water. In 2012, ORNL researchers announced the successful development of a new absorbent material dubbed HiCap which performs surface retention of solid or gas molecules, atoms or ions and also effectively removes toxic metals from water, according to results verified by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
In 2005, ten countries accounted for the majority of the world's concentrated uranium oxides: Canada (27.9%), Australia (22.8%), Kazakhstan (10.5%), Russia (8.0%), Namibia (7.5%), Niger (7.4%), Uzbekistan (5.5%), the United States (2.5%), Argentina (2.1%) and Ukraine (1.9%). In 2008 Kazakhstan was forecast to increase production and become the world's largest supplier of uranium by 2009. The prediction came true, and Kazakhstan does dominate the world's uranium market since 2010. In 2021, its share was 45.1%, followed by Namibia (11.9%), Canada (9.7%), Australia (8.7%), Uzbekistan (7.2%), Niger (4.7%), Russia (5.5%), China (3.9%), India (1.3%), Ukraine (0.9%), and South Africa (0.8%), with a world total production of 48,332 tonnes. Most of uranium was produced not by conventional underground mining of ores (29% of production), but by in situ leaching (66%).
In the late 1960s, UN geologists also discovered major uranium deposits and other rare mineral reserves in Somalia. The find was the largest of its kind, with industry experts estimating the deposits at over 25% of the world's then known uranium reserves of 800,000 tons.
The ultimate available supply is believed to be sufficient for at least the next 85 years, although some studies indicate underinvestment in the late twentieth century may produce supply problems in the 21st century. Uranium deposits seem to be log-normal distributed. There is a 300-fold increase in the amount of uranium recoverable for each tenfold decrease in ore grade. In other words, there is little high grade ore and proportionately much more low grade ore available.
Calcined uranium yellowcake, as produced in many large mills, contains a distribution of uranium oxidation species in various forms ranging from most oxidized to least oxidized. Particles with short residence times in a calciner will generally be less oxidized than those with long retention times or particles recovered in the stack scrubber. Uranium content is usually referenced to U 3O 8, which dates to the days of the Manhattan Project when U 3O 8 was used as an analytical chemistry reporting standard.
Phase relationships in the uranium-oxygen system are complex. The most important oxidation states of uranium are uranium(IV) and uranium(VI), and their two corresponding oxides are, respectively, uranium dioxide (UO 2) and uranium trioxide (UO 3). Other uranium oxides such as uranium monoxide (UO), diuranium pentoxide (U 2O 5), and uranium peroxide (UO 4·2H 2O) also exist.
The most common forms of uranium oxide are triuranium octoxide (U 3O 8) and UO 2. Both oxide forms are solids that have low solubility in water and are relatively stable over a wide range of environmental conditions. Triuranium octoxide is (depending on conditions) the most stable compound of uranium and is the form most commonly found in nature. Uranium dioxide is the form in which uranium is most commonly used as a nuclear reactor fuel. At ambient temperatures, UO 2 will gradually convert to U 3O 8. Because of their stability, uranium oxides are generally considered the preferred chemical form for storage or disposal.
Salts of many oxidation states of uranium are water-soluble and may be studied in aqueous solutions. The most common ionic forms are U3+ (brown-red), U4+ (green), UO+ 2 (unstable), and UO2+ 2 (yellow), for U(III), U(IV), U(V), and U(VI), respectively. A few solid and semi-metallic compounds such as UO and US exist for the formal oxidation state uranium(II), but no simple ions are known to exist in solution for that state. Ions of U3+ liberate hydrogen from water and are therefore considered to be highly unstable. The UO2+ 2 ion represents the uranium(VI) state and is known to form compounds such as uranyl carbonate, uranyl chloride and uranyl sulfate. UO2+ 2 also forms complexes with various organic chelating agents, the most commonly encountered of which is uranyl acetate.
Unlike the uranyl salts of uranium and polyatomic ion uranium-oxide cationic forms, the uranates, salts containing a polyatomic uranium-oxide anion, are generally not water-soluble.
Carbonates The interactions of carbonate anions with uranium(VI) cause the Pourbaix diagram to change greatly when the medium is changed from water to a carbonate containing solution. While the vast majority of carbonates are insoluble in water (students are often taught that all carbonates other than those of alkali metals are insoluble in water), uranium carbonates are often soluble in water. This is because a U(VI) cation is able to bind two terminal oxides and three or more carbonates to form anionic complexes.
Effects of pH The uranium fraction diagrams in the presence of carbonate illustrate this further: when the pH of a uranium(VI) solution increases, the uranium is converted to a hydrated uranium oxide hydroxide and at high pHs it becomes an anionic hydroxide complex.
When carbonate is added, uranium is converted to a series of carbonate complexes if the pH is increased. One effect of these reactions is increased solubility of uranium in the pH range 6 to 8, a fact that has a direct bearing on the long term stability of spent uranium dioxide nuclear fuels.
Hydrides, carbides and nitrides Uranium metal heated to 250 to 300 °C (482 to 572 °F) reacts with hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Even higher temperatures will reversibly remove the hydrogen. This property makes uranium hydrides convenient starting materials to create reactive uranium powder along with various uranium carbide, nitride, and halide compounds. Two crystal modifications of uranium hydride exist: an α form that is obtained at low temperatures and a β form that is created when the formation temperature is above 250 °C.
Uranium carbides and uranium nitrides are both relatively inert semimetallic compounds that are minimally soluble in acids, react with water, and can ignite in air to form U 3O 8. Carbides of uranium include uranium monocarbide (UC), uranium dicarbide (UC 2), and diuranium tricarbide (U 2C 3). Both UC and UC 2 are formed by adding carbon to molten uranium or by exposing the metal to carbon monoxide at high temperatures. Stable below 1800 °C, U 2C 3 is prepared by subjecting a heated mixture of UC and UC 2 to mechanical stress. Uranium nitrides obtained by direct exposure of the metal to nitrogen include uranium mononitride (UN), uranium dinitride (UN 2), and diuranium trinitride (U 2N 3).
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2023.03.30 06:21 TrueTruthsayer Polish programmers keyboard setup for xubuntu 22.04 LTS
Polish programmers keyboard is known from MS Windows keyboard arrangement allowing entering Polish national characters with standard American English International keys only. Polish diacriticals are entered with regular letters pressed with AltGr or Alt+Ctrl (on the left). Unfortunately, not only there's no arrangement named "Polish programmers" in the keyboard setup, but even in the closest available setup left Alt+Ctrl with letters acelnosxz doesn't generate Polish characters. Is there a way to install it properly?
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2023.03.30 05:55 bhlxue Afro-Latina Hits the Jackpot!
- Gender: Female
- Race/Ethnicity: Black/hispanic
- Residence: LI, NY
- Income Bracket: Low Income
- Type of School: Large Public School
- Hooks: URM, ROTC
: Medical Anthropology/Cultural Anthropology/Anthropology Academics
* GPA: 100.07 (W), UW Unknown * Rank: N/A * Honors/AP/IB/Dual Enrollment/etc: 8 APS, rest even mix of honors and regular classes. School bans APs for freshman, 3 per year (sophomore year it’s impossible to take more than 2 because of prerequisites). * Senior Year Course Load: AP Lit, AP Calc BC, AP Bio, Gov, Health, JROTC Standardized Testing
* SAT I:
1430 (680RW, 750M). Did not report this to Northwestern and Duke, submitted everywhere else. * AP/IB:
Research (5), USH, Psych (4), World, Seminar (3). I forgot to submit this to my EA and ED schools. I reported all my scores everywhere else. Extracurriculars/Activities
1. Section Leader at local churches choir. Accompanied by high involvement in church activities. 2. JROTC High leadership position. High involvement. 3. JROTC Drill Team Member. High involvement. 4. Tutor, Tutoring club. Medium involvement, I only did this my junior year. I explained in my additional info section that the organization halted tutoring. 5. Yearbook head of journalism. Medium involvement. 6. Member of large activism/community service organization. Medium involvement but high impact. 7. Summer Internship on healthcare (projects, presentations, classes on all sectors of healthcare). High involvement but only 6 weeks. Awards/Honors
1. ROTC Scholarship 2. Girls state! 3. AP Scholar w/ Distinction 4. National Hispanic & African-American Recognition Programs 5. National Honor Society (??) Letters of Recommendation
* Guidance Counselor (10/10):
He let me read it and also made it really personal. I think his letter resembled my character really well.
- Gov Teacher (9/10): I didn’t get to read this rec but he is known for writing good (and slightly embellished) letter of recs.
- Crim Justice Teacher (6/10): He let me read it and I felt like the essay is generic. It doesn’t add anything to my application but it definitely doesn’t paint me in a negative light either.
Essays Common App
- Barnard: Interviewed for CSTEP. I would say the interview was an 8/10; I easily connected with my interviewer but there were some questions I could’ve answered better.
- University of Rochester: Alumni Interview; super great! Loved my interviewer a ton :)
I started brainstorming my essay March of my junior year (perfect time to start them, IMO). Finalized my essay for ED1; after my rejection, I edited the essay (not heavily) and I think it improved the quality so much.
My essay was about my curly hair and my journey of its self acceptance. Throughout the essay, I continuously referenced barbie dolls and the way society compared me to one. I continued this idea throughout the entire essay and I think it worked really well. Everyone thinks I’m a good writer so I had a lot of fun writing this essay! Supplementals
For all of my Why Us essays, I discussed my passion for medicine, how my chosen major addresses this, and why the school was a good fit for my physician career. I had barely any medicine ECs so I felt it was extremely important to express why I want to pursue medicine. Decisions Acceptances:
* Barnard College (Committed!) * Northwestern University (still shocked) * University of Southern California (insane) * University of Rochester * Villanova University * Case Western Reserve University * Fordham University (EA) * Lehigh University * SUNY Binghamton University * SUNY Stony Brook (EA) * SUNY University at Buffalo (EA) Waitlists:
* Boston College * Boston University * Northeastern University (EA deferred) * UNC Chapel Hill Rejections:
* NYU (ED1) Waiting on
* Duke (IDEK why I applied, just wanna see the result for funsies💀). Additional Information:
In my additional info, I thoroughly clarified my home life. As a primary caretaker for my siblings, I couldn’t partake in as many ECs as I would’ve liked. Please make sure you’re specific here! This was roughly 1/3 of my additional information section.
I also talked about my extremely long commute to school and how this hinders my EC involvement.
The last of additional information was targeted towards explaining my ECs. For me, it’s really quality over quantity and I wanted to make sure the AOs knew this. Advice
1. ED rejection is NOT everything. My NYU rejection absolutely crushed me but I’ve found my new dream school (Barnard!)
- Do not ED if you think you have potential to improve. My ED application lacked a major award (ROTC Scholarship), and I had a few mistakes in my EC section and essay. I would say my strongest application was my Barnard one and it’s the one that got me the farthest.
- Don’t feel discouraged if you lack “stellar” ecs. Clearly, my ECs weren’t all that nor were they plentiful. However, in my common app, I worded these ECs extremely well and I made sure telaborate on major projects I was working on in my Additional Information section. Also, don’t compare yourself with applications you see on youtube, tiktok, ApplyingToCollege, or even this sub. I can’t tell you how agonized I was thinking I would never get into one of my top choices, yet I got into multiple reputable institutions.
- If youre a freshman-junior with any questions or would like to read my supplements (or even my common app essay), LMK. I’ve made a master document with all my essays (minus additional information as it is personal) and I would love to shshare it with any junior who needs it.
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2023.03.30 04:47 Vegetable-Cobbler734 Stocks are up over 1% across the board! Will tighter regulation put the U.S. banking industry out of its misery?
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The three major U.S. stock indices closed collectively higher on Wednesday! As the market's fears of a full-blown banking crisis waned again under the ongoing reassurances from European and American regulators.
Will tighter regulation put the U.S. banking industry out of its misery?
Federal Reserve Vice Chairman for Financial Supervision Barr, FDIC Chairman and U.S. Treasury Department officials attend the second day of congressional hearings.
But the vice chairman Barr bravely admitted the failure of Silicon Valley Bank, which shows that the Federal Reserve still need to continue to work to improve the resilience of the banking system, to assess whether stricter standards will prompt banks to better manage the risks that led to their failure.
The media said the FDIC is considering "ruthlessly charging large banks" to make up for the nearly $23 billion in bailout costs from recent bank failures, and the U.S. securities community is pressuring the FDIC not to charge small banks additional fees.
U.S. bank regulation is a cycle
Looking back at the U.S. regulation of the banking industry, it has experienced multiple rounds of switching between liberalization and strong regulation. The FDIC, which now carries the mission of bank deposit insurance, was established in 1933, exactly 90 years ago, and was created precisely in response to the financial panic and bank runs of the time. https://preview.redd.it/zwedhre1isqa1.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=2ac64649727efd4b02eaa7462b9e5c97d4f5ac07
After World War I, the U.S. manufacturing industry saw rapid growth, and the ensuing demand for corporate financing contributed to a boom in the securities market, with the U.S. stock and bond markets achieving unprecedented growth in the 1920s.
The number of U.S. banks engaged in securities business grew from 277 in 1922 to 591 in 1928, and a large amount of funds from commercial banks freely entered the high-risk securities market under the loosely regulated mechanism at that time, and from 1922 to 1929, the amount of bank funds entering the securities market tripled, and the percentage of bank funds invested in the securities market reached 38% in 1929.
In the second half of 1929, the Federal Reserve tightened its securities policy, the bubble burst, and the banking system went into chaos. Banks, which had put a lot of money into the stock market, faced losses and were in trouble, depositors were scurrying to withdraw their deposits, and more than 9,000 banks failed during the Great Depression of 1929-1933 because they could not raise funds from the Federal Reserve System. https://preview.redd.it/3yv354f4isqa1.jpg?width=1080&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a6e44932ecd8d555c3f6dc4902e1feb0dcfdb4b8
After Roosevelt came to power, he approved the Banking Act, known as the Glass I Stigl Act, which established a system of banking separation. Two agencies, the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), were given regulatory authority over banks and savings institutions, respectively. Under interest rate regulation (Regulation Q), banks were prohibited from paying interest to demand depositors, and interest on time deposits was also limited.
A painful "Great Depression" made the SEC realize the need for stronger financial regulation. https://preview.redd.it/0y8xwem6isqa1.png?width=960&format=png&auto=webp&s=7fe80ea8d0c1bb0edb60c2279fe22cb7b9f84dcc
As the wheels of history moved through the 1970s, the rise of neoliberal economics, which emphasized competition and efficiency, and the absence of a major economic crisis in the United States in the three decades following the Great Depression, calls for deregulation grew.
More importantly, the development of financial institutions under long-term regulation was greatly restricted and their operations were in trouble. High inflation and interest rate regulation led to serious "financial disintermediation" in the U.S. Under Regulation Q, the interest rate on bank deposits could not exceed 5.5%, while the domestic inflation rate exceeded double digits, forcing a large amount of capital to flee banks and flock to money market funds.
The liabilities side was short maturity deposits, which were under pressure to be lost, and the assets side was long maturity, fixed rate mortgages, which were under pressure to be impaired in times of high inflation and high interest rates. Banks are eager to break interest rate controls and seek to expand revenue streams in other areas such as securities.
Under pressure, the U.S. Securities and regulatory agencies deregulation, specific measures include: Garn-St Germain (Garn-St Germain Depository Institutions Act) to relax the restrictions on the investment side of S&L, and allow banks to provide floating rate mortgage goods, to solve the problem of interest rate mismatch; phasing out Regulation Q, etc.
By the end of the 1980s, non-performing loans began to skyrocket after the real estate market downturn due to serious financial fraud by a large number of savings and loans institutions.
According to FDIC statistics, more than 2,900 institutions went bankrupt during the storage crisis, corresponding to total assets of about $920 billion, accounting for about 19% of the average annual GDP during the period, even the above-mentioned FSLIC, which was established after the Great Depression, also went bankrupt due to its inability to bear insurance payments.
After the crisis, the U.S. re-entered the strict regulation mode, the Basel Accord strengthened the capital requirements for the banking industry, and the enactment of the Financial Services Modernization Act in 1999 marked the return of the financial industry to mixed operations and the establishment of "umbrella regulation".
The subprime crisis also revealed the inadequacy of financial regulation, and in 2009, the Commission of Inquiry mandated by the U.S. Congress released the Financial Crisis Inquiry Report, which summarized eight causes of the financial crisis, including the failure of risk management of systemically important financial institutions, the failure of financial regulation and supervision to undermine financial stability, the lack of high-risk investment and transparency, and the lack of preparedness of the Securities and Exchange Commission to deal with the crisis.
Subsequently, the U.S. enacted the Financial Regulatory Reform Program and the Dodd-Frank Act, and implemented the Volcker Rule to strengthen the supervision of systemic risk and important institutions.
After the Trump administration took office in 2018, it pushed to amend the Dodd-Frank Act to raise the criteria for determining that banks have systemic risk, so that only banks with assets of more than $250 billion are classified as more stringent regulatory targets (the previous regulatory standard was $50 billion).
As of the end of 2022, Silicon Valley Bank, Signature Bank, and First Republic Bank, which are in the epicenter of this banking crisis with assets of $209 billion, $110 billion, and $212.6 billion, respectively, are excluded from this regulation.
In addition, also relaxed the supervision of small and medium-sized banks, including exemptions from the "Walker rule", reduce the frequency of stress tests, etc.. And this has become the focus of the ongoing hearings on "dumping".
What is the impact on banks?
After the financial crisis, countries have strengthened the supervision of systemically important banks, but the supervision of regional banks of relatively low importance is more lenient. After this Silicon Valley Bank triggered a series of financial turmoil, it is likely to force the Federal Reserve to adopt stricter regulation, and the statement at Barr's hearing also released the signal of strict regulation.
A return to the standards in place before the 2018 Dodd-Frank amendments is not out of the question, and not only systemically important banks, but other small and medium-sized banks may also face higher capital and liquidity requirements.
In fact, as we back to the lake of the regulatory adjustment, after the crisis there is often a round of reflection and upgrade of financial regulation, but with economic development and financial innovation, or banks operating in a bottleneck, there is always a window of regulatory relaxation, and once again the financial control can not keep pace with the situation.
For banks, ultra-tight regulation will inevitably have an impact on the conduct of banking business and profitability. After the financial crisis, in response to regulatory requirements for capital and liquidity, banks' compliance costs have inevitably increased while their asset scale expansion has been restricted, and the growth rate of bank assets has further decreased from about 10% in 2013 to 5% in 2018.
Banks' willingness to lend continues to be subdued, preferring instead to hold high-quality liquid assets including U.S. debt and central banks beyond, which is particularly prominent in the wake of the pandemic.
Also in terms of bank profitability, there is a gap with the pre-crisis level, with the average ROA of the US banking sector at 0.8%-1% during 2012-2018, slightly lower than the pre-crisis level of 1.3%; ROE is consistently below 12%, a larger gap than the pre-crisis level of 12%-15%. It was only after the deregulation in 2018 that ROA jumped significantly. https://preview.redd.it/f8ce9p6gisqa1.png?width=880&format=png&auto=webp&s=98f176fa3fec17e47eca98a6e68ccc29fc943f30
On the one hand, the regulation more or less restrained the bank's ability to make money, but on the other hand, regulation is not a panacea, loose tight and may trigger the exposure of risk, such as the mentioned 80s savings and loan crisis is an example.
Under strict regulation, storage institutions operating difficulties, under pressure interest rate certificate government relaxed interest rate restrictions, but the plight of banks did not lift, in the competition of high interest rates for storage, the cost of bank liabilities rose sharply, while the asset side of the housing impairment problem still exists, which squeezed the profits of banks. The fundamental crux of the problem still lies in the constantly high interest rates, storage institutions are highly concentrated in the real estate industry chasing high returns.
The crisis triggered by Silicon Valley Bank has many similarities with the storage crisis, deposit outflows, asset impairment, significant expansion after regulatory relaxation, and the possibility of regulatory action again after risk exposure.
History will not repeat itself, but it will be similar. As long as the monetary policy is still tightening, the yield curve continues to be inverted, the plight of banks can hardly be completely lifted.
2023.03.30 04:16 Subject-Fig-1819 Honest Black American Hockey Fan.
Listen guys I am a black American hockey fan since the days of Pittsburgh Penguins (love Crosby he’s my favorite), History of the Bruins and Islanders I support. My parents are from Africa so this ain’t a white man talking.
Everyone needs to chill about pride like it’s getting to the point where it’s really annoying. Can’t we just play the game of hockey. Lgbtq+ people are just people, we shouldn’t give them special treatment because we have laws that you can’t discriminate against them that’s more than enough to be equal that’s more than enough to work with (progress ain’t linear it’s a zigzag) that’s why society is regressing because we see success is linear. My problem with pride people is that “I’m Lgbtq+ so I expect everyone to like me” are the kinds who have unrealistic standards (just be normal like everyone else no matter who you are). Any community you are in you are going to be not liked, it’s life (I’m black so I know but don’t try to speak about me and what’s best for my community because you guys don’t know what’s best so don’t try to speak what’s best for us, we can solve it ourselves).
Don’t care if you in that lgbtq+ community or lifestyle just don’t make it your whole personality. If the players don’t support it then it’s their values, just respect their values the way you want to be respected, it’s not that hard of a long list. It’s not cool to attack someone who’s religious or whatever belief system because you don’t have to be religious/conservative or whatever you guys call it in the U.S. to do honor what I’m saying and vice versa if rolls were reversed as well.
I can hold you to same standards that the lgbtq+ hold to religious people that they are judgmental, hypocritical and ignorant and force others to believe what they wanna believe when the echo chambers in the lgbtq+ community are doing the exact same thing that they hate religious people for doing🤦🏾♂️.
You guys don’t want religion to be pushed on to people that don’t believe it which is your opinion so I respect it but keep that same standard when it comes to lgbtq+ rights. We are all just normal people trying to escape reality.
The national anthem isn’t from the alt right or whatever idk how you guys call it but don’t we all live in America despite all our differences so why not try to make America a better place. When other people in other countries are patriotic we don’t have a problem, we actually support them but when it is America doing it then it’s a problem. 9/11 everyone wasn’t like this. I’m only 21 so I was a baby when the attacks happened when everyone was United. It’s called United States of America not Divided States. I see the national anthem as reuniting as a nation.
Be humble to have an open mind. We are not all perfect. I can still love a person while still critiquing them, people don’t understand that anymore. I see everyone as equals idc who you are and what you believe in, we are all different.
submitted by Subject-Fig-1819
to nhl [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 04:03 shudix1 BROWNIE FROM FLAWDA MAKES IT TO UPENN HUNTSMAN (WHARTON + THE COLLEGE) VIA THE ED ROUND
This is long overdue, but here we go. TLDR:
You don’t need strong business extracurriculars to get into Wharton, which is arguably the number one business school in the world. Do what you love. And yes, I am aware that this is doxxing myself… Oh, well… Free publicity, I guess? I am also willing to share my essays on a case-by-case basis, so feel free to reach out. Demographics
- Gender: Male
- Race/Ethnicity: Asian (Indian)
- Residence: Florida
- Income Bracket: ~140k
- Type of School: Public
- Hooks (Recruited Athlete, URM, First-Gen, Geographic, Legacy, etc.): None
: Huntsman Program (Business at Wharton + International Studies at the College) Academics
- GPA (UW/W): UW: 3.97/4.00, W: 4.80/5.00
- Rank (or percentile): ~Top 3%
- # of Honors/AP/IB/Dual Enrollment/etc.: 5 Honors, 13 AP, and 8 IB (took whatever my school offered and a few online ones on Florida Virtual School)
- Senior Year Course Load: 6 IB and 1 AP (dropped the 1 AP a week after I got in ahahaha)
- ACT: Perfect 36 (English: 35, Math: 36, Reading: 36, Science: 36)
- Swim, Team Captain and Swimmer, Club Advanced Level and High School Varsity Swim Team 2x State Championship Finalist; Made daily workouts and coached newer swimmers; Speedo Sectionals Qualifier; Attended practices 2x/day, 6 days/week
- Climate Data Science Intern, FSU Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies Published paper exploring novel climate prediction technique; Instructed a graduate-level Python lecture series; Identified anomalies in NASA datasets
- Delegate, Florida American Legion Boys State Elected Chairman of Nationalist Party (Top 1/218); Boys Nation Nominee (Top 6/436); Devised party platform; Conducted primary elections and hype-rally
- Commissioner's Summer Youth Intern (Paid Position), County Commissioner’s Office Research on homelessness presented at County Board; Briefed Commissioner before meetings with clients; Reported district-wide concerns, drafted solutions
- Executive Board Member and Delegate, Model United Nations Club - Organized national conference with FSU; Taught position paper, parliamentary procedure, and resolution writing workshops; 6 National Awards
- Founder and President, Speech & Debate Club - 2x County Debate Tournament Director; Coached Lincoln-Douglas and Public Forum to members (50% NSDA/NCFL Qualification); Prepared weekly lectures
- President and Captain, Quiz/Brain Bowl Club - 4x NAQT Championships Qualifier (2x Playoffs Qualifier); County Quiz Tournament Director; Made Team Study Packets for 15 topics (300+ Pages)
- Competitor and Official Test Writer, Mu Alpha Theta Club - Wrote tests for and organized annual statewide competition (1,000+ competitors); Coached 10 students (3 state, 1 national champion); Won 30+ awards
- Self-Taught American Sign Language (ASL), American Sign Language University (Online Course) Studied ASL 1+2; Exploring non-verbal communication altered my perspective; Motive was to communicate with deaf friends; Currently taking ASL 3+4
- Motivational Speaker and Content Creator - Made 6 videos on teenage physical health and mental well-being during COVID-19; Reached 7,500+ viewers without publicity; Learned filming and editing
Letters of Recommendation
- Recognized by the UN and Australian Govt. (InternationalMUN Director of Public Relations/Outreach)
- Best/Outstanding Delegate (PMUNC2021, GTMUN2021, GatorMUNXIX, KnightMUNXX, TSMUN24 and 25)
- AIME Qualifier (Top 5% of AMC 12) and 1st Place History of Math (2021 MAO National Convention)
- Jim Moran College of Entrepreneurship Startup Pitch Competition (1st Place in Florida)
- Bob & Gail Knight Scholarship (Top 2/436 on Boys State Government, Law, and History of Florida Exam)
I read both of my teacher recommendations. Honestly, these were amazing and I couldn’t be more grateful. In length, they were nothing crazy (600 - 700), but in terms of content, they were completely personalized. Other than the advice that y’all have probably seen everywhere about teachers including unique anecdotes and tying these back into how your character traits will benefit the school in question, I was lucky enough to have my teachers do something especially special for me. It is not very often that you notice teachers including comparisons in their letters of recommendation. Phrases like, “the best in my class,” “the top student,” “one of my favorites,” “most enjoyable to write for,” and “will be one of the few that go on to the big stage” are phrases that exemplify how strongly a teacher advocates for you. These phrases can be deal-breakers, as the letter of recommendation is the only component that allows for someone other than you to speak on your behalf. Regarding my counselor recommendation, unfortunately, I do not have access to it, but I am probably one of the closest students to him in my class. He also happens to be the IB Coordinator and the Quiz Bowl Sponsor. Interviews
This was super enjoyable and probably my favorite part of the entire process. Although Penn claims that this interview is more-so for you to ask questions and to get to know the school, my interviewer practically guaranteed that she would write a stellar report. Out of the 90 minutes that we spoke for, only 30 were actually devoted to her asking me questions. The remaining 60 minutes were just us talking about… Life? It got to the point where she taught me how to make croque monsieur (it’s basically a French grilled cheese). I actually lost my note sheet, as my interview was back in November, but if I remember correctly, the following were the questions (the part that y’all readers probably care about) asked: “Introduce yourself by telling me three things about yourself,” “Tell me about your favorite extracurricular activity and its impact on your life,” “Tell me about what inspired you to want to study business at Penn, and specifically at Wharton,” and “Tell me about why you want to be a part of the Huntsman Program and why you chose the target language that you chose.” It’s important to note that while these do appear to only be 4 questions, the interview is supposed to be conversational, so many follow-up questions were asked in between. Essays
Especially for someone of my demographic, I haven’t experienced many of the shared struggles or common experiences that most speak of in their essays. With that being said, I believe that I have also experienced many things that others of my background have not, so that probably made my essays a bit more unique. Without revealing too much, my personal statement was about how I combined my own struggles and attachment to the community to engage in three unorthodox activities. My supplements went into depth regarding these three activities. I’d say that this was a very risky strategy, considering that if one of the essays didn’t really hit home with the readers, the rest would also fall flat. Luckily, this was successful. One thing that I would definitely suggest to applicants in general, especially for Penn, is to look at a school’s mission statement and “values” (just Google *school name* “values”) and ensure that all of your essays showcase at least three of those values and make it a prominent theme throughout them. Additionally, take advantage of the UStrive Platform. Trust me, I haven’t been paid to advertise or anything like that, but it was a life-saver. College consultants can charge thousands of dollars, but with UStrive, if you choose the right mentor, you can get an even better experience completely free of charge. Decisions (indicate ED/EA/REA/SCEA/RD) Acceptances:
Additional Information: Honors 1: Led team of 5 individuals from Chile, India, Nigeria, Norway, and Singapore, and conducted Instagram, Facebook, and cold-emailing publicity campaigns to promote the annual conference; Created MUN discussion Discord server that now has 1,000+ active members; Doubled conference turnout and extended reach to Australia; Managed monthly subscription-based MUN resource network; Received $1,000 grant from UN and Australian Govt. to continue work and make free MUN courses for underprivileged children in rural areas Honors 4: One-week Summer Program hosted by Florida State University; Familiarized myself with lean business canvas, retail marketing, and STEM entrepreneurship; Pitched for custom prosthetics company called FuseIt; Responsible for data analytics, customer acquisition, and innovating revenue streams; Engaged in corporate philanthropy (30% of profits back to community) Activity 1: (i) Main events are 50-yard, 100-yard, and 200-yard freestyle, but I also swim 50-yard and 100-yard butterfly. Relay events are 200-yard medley (anchor leg) and 200-yard freestyle (anchor leg). (ii) School Representative at 2022 Leon County Scholar-Athlete of the Year, 2x Coach’s Award, 2x Highest Points Overall Activity 2: (i) Paper Title - “The Regional Diagnosis of Onset and Demise of the Rainy Season over Tropical and Subtropical Australia” (ii) Journal Title - "Earth Interactions" (American Meteorological Society) Activity 3: (i) “Nationalist” Party is not indicative of any partisan or extremist views (it can be interpreted this way nowadays), as the 436 delegates are randomly split into 2 separate parties (“Nationalists” and “Federalists” were chosen to avoid labeling of Democrats and Republicans) (ii) Delivered annual Boys State “Americanism” Speech in front of Governor Ron DeSantis of Florida and Mayor John Dailey of Tallahassee Activity 4: Research Briefing Title - “Characterizing the Prominent Causes and Effects of Homelessness in Leon County and Exploring Potential Public Policy Solutions”
- ED (COMMITTED): University of Pennsylvania - Huntsman Program - Wharton (will be concentrating in Finance and Business Analytics) + The College
- EA: Florida State University
- (I was required to withdraw all my other applications due to the ED policy)
submitted by shudix1
to collegeresults [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 03:17 el_dumass PART 3, SECOND COLONY ROUND 2: Seth Freeman vs Kaito Sasaki
| || |6:00 PM, 18-3-2019, On a street in Hong Kong, China https://preview.redd.it/z5zftmbf2sqa1.png?width=1500&format=png&auto=webp&s=99f57e0b62252fa522cbef625fab5bf6936eacba LET THE JUJUTSU KAISEN BEGIN!!! Seth Freeman submitted by el_dumass to TheCullingGames [link] [comments]
[Appearance & Personality]Seth is a dark-skinned, Jamaican-American man. He is tall, being 6'4" (193 cm) at just 19 years old, and he has a powerful, athletic build due to his background in boxing and capoeira. He has long, black hair that he twists into dreadlocks. He can normally be seen wearing an all-black hoodie and sweatpants, accented only by the golden design on his basketball shoes and a thin gold chain he wears around his neck. Also worn around his neck is a heavily-decorated painter's mask, which he puts on when doing aerobic exercise as a form of training. He keeps a pair of small, wire-framed glasses in his pocket for reading and fine work, as his vision is bad for small things up close. Seth has used his own body as a canvas, as from the neck down, he is covered in tattoos of all shapes and sizes, and even the palms of his hands are marked with temporary art penned into his skin.
[Physical Attributes]High agility/elusiveness (dodging and reaction timing), High stamina (ability to continue higher amounts of physical output without tiring)
[Cursed Attributes]Has a cursed trait, has a non-combative domain that allows for it to be re-casted frequently or early in battle (ex. Kinji's "Idle Death Gamble" or Higuruma's "Death Sentencing")
Seth's cursed energy feels like a mass of hot, gritty particles. It is a deep black in color and is less transparent than normal cursed energy. Skin gets rubbed raw where strikes land, and it causes irritation in any orifice of the body it interacts with. While still fluid, the energy is more solid than previously seen forms and can be shaped into single-attack bludgeoning weapons for small moments at a time, and small pillars can be explosively formed under his feet or into walls to allow for quick, unexpected bursts of movement and faster sustained sprinting speed. Thick layers of his cursed energy can weakly dampen all kinds of energy and shock, and his cursed energy can be layered over wounds to prevent blood from escaping. The overall effect makes fights with Seth increasingly uncomfortable and distracting the longer they go on, as well as increasing his range, bruising attack power, and defensive ability against striking and energy-based attacks.
[Cursed Technique & Applications]Division of the Soul: Ren.The ancient Egyptians believed the soul was divided into five parts; Ba, Ka, Sheut, Ib, and Ren.Ren was the name of the soul, and it was believed to be a person's identity, their experiences, and their entire life's worth of memories. This cursed technique allows Seth to copy 1/5th of the soul of an individual whose full name he knows, and imbue it into a piece of art he creates. After learning a person's name, Seth can create a work of visual art in their likeness or an abstraction thereof. This can be, but isn't limited to a sketch or drawing, a clay or wire sculpture, an oil or finger painting, or a stone or wood carving. Seth can then "attach" the target's name to the finished work, animating it completely under his command. The work has the same cursed technique as the named target and 1/5th of the target's original cursed energy reserves. It also possesses all knowledge that the target held at the time of the work's creation, including how to do domain expansions, RCT, simple domains, create curtains, or other secret techniques that the target knew, even if they don't necessarily have the cursed energy supply to perform them. Seth can only use the target's name for one work at a time, and attaching the name to a new work makes the other work burn up and dissolve into black sand. Works only consume cursed energy when they are first animated, and maintain themselves with no further energy input on Seth's part. For the name to work, it must align with the target's sense of self, and the target must have a soul (Important note: We do see Mahito's soul in the series so I do believe cursed spirits, shikigami, and likely animals are as prone to this ability as humans are.) Applications 1.
Presumably, all other cursed technique applications at 1/5th power given enough time and resources. 2.
Osiris's Blessing- He can speak and gain information from dead people who are animated in his work (Important note: We know from chapter 176 that the underworld, popularly a place for souls to rest eternally, is a confirmed thing in the JJK universe, so this application should work.) 3.
Army of the Pharaoh- Seth retreats into his domain and animates every possibly offensively-capable work of art, creating a veritable army of both normal people, sorcerers, cursed spirits, and animals. 4.
Gift from the Djed Pillar- Through heavenly restriction on Seth's own attack power and physical defense, he can grant functionality to any cursed tool or weapon that a work of his may possess.
Fun Fact: In ancient Egypt, person was believed to "live" as long as their name lasted even if they were physically dead, hence why the pharaohs build all those monuments to their name.
[Domain Expansion]The Second Great Library of Alexandria is a Domain Expansion that brings the innermost parts of Seth's mind into reality. It manifests as a maze of bookshelves, with glass cases and open walls for displaying art. In exchange for not having a sure-hit effect, it has the property of being much larger on the inside than the barrier looks on the outside. The floor is composed of the same hot, dark sand as that which makes of Seth's cursed energy trait, and falling into can be disastrously distressing for anyone who isn't Seth. Inverse to most domains, it is sturdy from the outside but easily escapable from the inside. If a target is within a domain at the moment of its expansion, Seth learns their name. Within the Library, indestructible books containing a description of every bit of knowledge Seth has ever acquired sit on the shelves, excluding that which has been given up in a binding vow. This includes every memory he has forgotten, every piece of information that he has noticed, even in passing, and every thought or idea he's ever had. The Library also has perfect copies of every piece of art Seth has ever made on display, which Seth can transfer names to by sacrificing the original. This makes it so any work that Seth makes is never truly destroyed, and can be instantly and repeatedly re-created once they are reached within the library. Seth has an intuitive understanding of the layout of the library and where everything is within it.
[Extra Information]Seth's art is known to be extremely lifelike, able to perfectly capture the imperfect beauty of the human form or the horrifying configuration of unknown creatures. Though as a self-proclaimed "anarchist", Seth often uses his work to terrorize the rich people who buy his works. He works outside of the greater jujutsu community and mostly found about the world of curses on his own, though he has done thorough research and has close contacts within the jujutsu world, and thus has knowledge of most of its public figures. He does not go out of his way to exterminate curses and usually captures them to use as subjects for his art. He does boxing and capoeira at a competitive level, and a little breakdancing as a hobby, and trains for all of this wearing a painter's mask, putting on the upper end of athletic physicality. Within the ring and while fighting other sorcerers, Seth's fighting style is to wear out and disorient his opponent with uncomfortable chaos while evading their attacks until he is able to find the moment where he can land a clear finishing blow. While cocky and overconfident, Seth has an artists' eye, and notices and thinks a lot about his surroundings during a fight, and he is keen on doing extensive research into any opponent he faces before they meet. After winning a battle, he likes to graffiti an abstract image representing the opponent he faced onto the location of the battle using spray paint. He's aroace and doesn't really have a type, but he thinks Goths are nice, and would tell Todo as much.
VS Kaito Sasaki
[Appearance & Personality]
Kaito Sasaki is a sorcerer who stands at 1.8m or 5'11". He's 23 years old, on the younger side of things, has stark white hair, and deep purple eyes.
This a genetic result of not only being a member of the Sasaki Clan, but direct heir to it. He weighs in at 75kg or 165lbs, being on the more lean muscular side, rather than just pure muscle.
Kaito is seen most often with terrible eye bags, as he does suffer from insomnia most of the time, despite how often his students see him 'sleeping.' He wears a standard Jujutsu Tech uniform, though it's usually black in color, and the badge on the uniform is purple color, rather than the simple gold.
Along with that, on the back of the uniform there's an Inazuma Guruma kamon, with the middle point being a purple, the shade of his eyes, and the other trailing parts being a light grey in color.
This is crest of the Sasaki Clan.
(For a basic look at how Kaito looks headshot wise, check profile, the art there is made by u/kaneki
High intelligence (ability to find ways to counter cursed techniques with their own), High adaptability (ability to adjust to the environment quickly and use it to their advantage)
Uses a cursed tool/weapon, Immense cursed energy supply.
Raitaro is a katana cursed tool, from the Sasaki Clan vault. The blade is 60cm or 1'11" long. The saya of the blade itself has a dark purple coloration to it, with some bolts of lightning on the kojiro of it, traveling upward.
The upper portion, right before the tsuba meets the saya, is the Sasaki Clan crest in the saya itself. The blade however, is a perfectly sharpened blade, with one unique detail: a black lightning bolt traveling along the groove of the blade.
This bolt is actually part of the Cursed Tool's technique. The technique of Raitaro absorbs the user's excess Cursed Energy in battle to not only temper the user's usage of Cursed Energy, but store it within the blade as well.
Upon the lightning bolt glowing a deep purple in color, the blade upon hitting contact with the opponent, or anything in its path, it releases a destructive wave of lightning in the path when the point of impact was made.
[Cursed Technique & Applications]
Sasaki Clan Lightning Generation
This familial technique when it has first awakened in the user, only allows them to generate lightning from any point on their body. They cannot control this lightning at first, and they can’t do much with it either.
The most they can do is enhance their speed by cloaking themselves in cursed energy, which causes lightning which is usually purple in color to spark around them.
However, as the user practices more and more with the technique they will then fall into one of the “Sasaki Clan Squads”, which are usually specialized based on what the user can then do with the technique. Being the heir to the Sasaki Clan, Kaito knows a total of 5 out of the 8 applications his clan knows of;
• Constructs - Able to form constructs made out of the lightning into very basic things, such as a Bo staff or a spear. These constructs still have an electrical charge to them especially when hitting someone. Basic constructs only.
• Precision - The user can form beams of electricity that are laser precise and have large range to them, like a sniper.
• Redirection - A skill that most if not all Sasaki Clan members want to get or fall into since it allows them to redirect any form of cursed energy lightning back at the attacker.
• Arcs - The most powerful of the aforementioned abilities, the Arcs abilities will burn a lot more than the regular projectile and can hurt a lot more as well as the direction being unpredictable once an Arc is fired off. It takes practice and patience to be able to use this ability to its fullest potential.
• Strike - This is one of the rarest and hardest to learn applications of the entire clan. Not much is known about it, but people know it’s activated once the sky darkens, thunder begins to boom, and lightning begins to flash. From this, the user imbues their cursed energy into the sky, and can call forth a bolt of lightning from the sky, this is a lot more powerful than the average lightning generated from the technique.
Wrath of Raijin:
At first all the opponent will see inside of the domain, is complete darkness. No visible light until the storm builds up around them. From here, it begins to rain extremely hard on the opponent, and on a difficult terrain that the domain hosts, which is upon a mountain, it's easy to slip and fall.
However, the user of the domain is then free to use ANY of the eight applications the clan knows of, and even some they might not have even considered, or have discovered yet. In the domain, the user is granted near perfect electrokinesis.
When using the application "Strike" its damage output is increased tenfold.
Along with the heavy rain that exists within the domain itself, lightning bolts will strike the ground at random intervals, NOT caused by the sorcerer therefore not wasting more Cursed Energy than is required keeping the Domain Expansion up.
The user as well, is unaffected by what occurs inside of the domain, and their presence practically vanishes inside of it. Notice, the word practically, as any sensory technique that is focused on Kaito enough can pinpoint him, but that's also if they can withstand lightning bolts hitting them.
Kaito Sasaki is a Semi-Special Grade Sorcerer, meaning that he's a part of the in-between of First Grade Sorcerers, and Special Grade Sorcerers/Spirits. What does this mean exactly?
Well it means he has much more power than a First Grade Sorcerer will, but not so boundless that he's classified as a Special Grade Sorcerer. It's the best way I can explain it. On top of this, being the direct heir of the clan means that he is very physically fit and knows a lot.
Specifically that of various martial arts from the world. Specifically, Kung Fu, Sambo, Silat, Vale Tudo, and Krav Maga. Kaito's father wanted to make a weapon out of his heir, and that he did.
Although Kaito is not listed as having High Strength or Agility, it should be kept in mind with these practices that he does have a more refined strength and agility when it comes to battle, rather than raw strength and agility.
He is versed in Iaido, and Kendo, though not as much as say a Samurai or one who is deeply invested into the Way of the Sword.
After analyzing the matchup, place your votes on who you think will win this round here! View Poll
2023.03.30 03:12 Bestoncarvinalrides 4 Tips For Buying Indoor Playground Equipment For The Kids
| || | submitted by Bestoncarvinalrides to u/Bestoncarvinalrides [link] [comments]
Parents are always interested in the protection and welfare of their children. In addition, they want their kids being happy and healthy. Playing is an integral part of your child's growth. It helps make sure they are healthy and fit and develops social skills. That's where indoor playground equipment is useful. There are many factors to consider when purchasing indoor playground equipment
for your personal kids. You can purchase indoor playground equipment with some other features to further improve the kid's knowledge while playing. Listed here are 4 important suggestions to consider when purchasing indoor playground equipment for your kids. https://preview.redd.it/sng3hyrxzrqa1.jpg?width=2000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8c71a4ffba1601b08208d0513e3e87f649d18c62
- The product quality & standard of indoor playground equipment is one of the most significant factors to consider. Ensure the equipment meets industry standards for quality prior to deciding to invest your hard-earned money. Find out if your manufacturer's indoor playground gear is on the National Program for Playground Safety (NPPS) or American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) before you purchase it. Visit the websites of the organizations and see should your chosen equipment is listed on one of these brilliant websites. In case the equipment isn't listed on these websites, you should not invest your hard-earned money on them. The greatest thing is to search for a manufacturer who seems to be listed using the aforementioned organizations. Doing this, you are certain in regard to the quality and standard of your product.
- The proper indoor playground equipment should match the safety standards laid down through the authorities. Every indoor playground equipment should pass the customer Product Safety (CPSC) test. Even when the equipment passes the exam, you ought to try to find sharp protrusions or ropes in the equipment. Equipment with sharp protrusions or ropes can injure your kids. Though most playground equipment may need sharp, pointed, and hard elements to assemble the set, you should make sure these objects don't harm or injure your kid.
- The correct design can be another aspect to consider when purchasing indoor playground equipment for your kid. Here are some designs that will help your kid grow strong and smart with time:. Educational – Educational equipment offers considerably more than tunnels, ropes, slides, and swings. Math games are some of the most favored in this connection.
. Musical – Musical gear is also a component of your child's overall education. Your kid will jump on giant piano keys and beat drums.
. Naturalistic – Naturalistic equipment brings Nature into the kid's room. Rubber rocks, plastic caves, trees, and boulders are samples of this type of equipment. Kids learn to explore nature while playing if you invest in this kind of playground equipment for the kids.
- The age of your kids plays a big part when buying the proper indoor playground equipment for him or her. You need to consult the manufacturer if you cannot choose the proper equipment for your personal child. They are going to recommend the correct indoor playground equipment to fit your kid's needs.
The aforementioned article provides facts about 4 important ways to consider when buying indoor playground equipment for your personal kids.
2023.03.30 02:44 spectacx Home warranty is supposed to replace heat pump but have concerns...
I have american home shield warranty and a contractor for them came out and said both the heat pump and air handler in the attic need to be replaced and he will be communicating that back to the warranty company.
Main question is, should I actually go with their contractor or try and cash out? My current unit (16 year old 1.5 ton Trane) is below the minimum standard seer rating anyway. The guy said he mostly sees Bryant, Lennox, and I think Goodman offered as replacements.
Let's say worse case I end up owing 1k-2k for any work needing done outside the warranty. Is it worth it or should I just go with a more reputable company? This particular guy said only about 10% of his work is warranty work. He has no website or anything and when I asked him he said he really doesn't need to advertise. He said nothing about doing a load calculation and didn't look at the breaker box (like other outside hvac companies have done who have come to my house) but instead just took measurements of the unit in the attic.
submitted by spectacx
to hvacadvice [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 02:01 heavyweight00 Scored a win! Appartamento for…
$1000! My long search has paid off! I made a previous post on here about what machines to look into. Like many have said the Appartamento isn’t really worth the value compared to other machines in the price range to today’s standards. I was lucky enough to snag this used and in good condition off Facebook market place. I confirmed the machine was purchased at Chris’ Coffee in March 2021 with the serial number provided, unfortunately, the warranty ended on March 8th, so there is that. Includes the double spout portafilter and a bottomless portafilter with a custom wooden handle, tamper, leveler, portafilter rim, brush, tamp mat, knock box, and the milk jug. I’m looking into buying a IMS or Matrix screen, e61 temperature reader and bar reader to adjust it to 9 bars. I pick it up tomorrow!
Any recommendations to make this build better?
submitted by heavyweight00
to espresso [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 01:55 cycles_commute Most ironic crash
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Visited the Portal of the Folded Wings Aviation memorial. There are a lot of important aviation people buried there and a memorial for Columbia. Stumbled on this plaque and it made my day. submitted by cycles_commute to aviation [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 01:09 subliminalulterior Best way to maximise points for flight tickets?
It will be my first time using the amex to buy British Airways tickets with my standard BA Amex card.
It's a transatlantic flight from London Heathrow to Mexico city and then from Cancun (to Philadelphia via American Airlines) to London.
I recently discovered the executive club app also, and I found I could have gotten 2x the points on things I was already buying.
My question therefore is, is there a way to maximise the points i can get when booking this?
submitted by subliminalulterior
to amex [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 00:56 MimiEMU Simple hack doubles RSO Total Cannabinoids.
| || | submitted by MimiEMU to CannabisExtracts [link] [comments]
Some of you know me for my efforts in making cleaner RSO. Well, this past February, I came across a real simple hack in making classic RSO that takes Total Cannabinoids from the mid 30s to the high 70s, up to distillate quality. Lab test reports are available on my website with a full writeup and demo video. Since this oil is so significantly higher in potency, I'm calling it 'Refined Cannabis Extract' or RxCE for short.
By using this hack, you can now take 2oz cured plant and have decarbed, winterized oil in under 2 hours. This oil is clean enough to be vaped, something you don't want to do with RSO/FECO. If you make RSO or FECO, then this will be very easy for you to learn. No lab gear, no vacuum pumps, just kitchen gear; pots, pans, mason jars and metal bowls, oh and a fork.. :D
Spoiler alter! Here's the hack. Just add distilled water to the boiler when boiling off the bulk of the alcohol! It's that easy, but goes against everything assumed to be correct. By boiling in distilled water, all the water solubles are removed, leaving a purer oil. This sets up an optimized winterization. Dump the waste water, redissolve the oils in the boiler with ethanol and let it sit in the freezer for an hour. After an hour, pour the wash through a coffee filter. You have now caught all the waxes that used to take 12-24 hours to freeze in the standard winterization. I call this Rapid Winterization. Now reduce the oil one last time and you have pristine oils, see below..
One very important point. You can use the alcohol of your choice for the bulk wash. Ignoring the Solvent Wars for a moment, this allows for vastly less expensive 99% Isopropyl to used for the bulk wash. Using 99%+ solvents is the best you can do. Once the oils are extracted, then water is not an issue. The final reduction can use lower proof alcohols with a little heat assist. This is important, for instance, because 43% of Americans don't have access to 95% alcohol in their states. With this process, you can safely use 99% Isopropyl for the bulk wash then watery 100 proof / 50% Ethanol for the final reduction. The final reduction first boils off any remaining water, then heats the oil to 250f for decarbing. By decarbing this way at the end, a literal firewall is created that removes all residual solvents. I present multiple lab test reports showing the oils are clear of any residual solvents.
So, take it away! This is all free for everyone to use, no limitations. I developed this as a Pay-It-Forward to help the MMJ community. Pass it on to any MMJ patients that use RSO or FECO.
Cheers! https://preview.redd.it/ekhz0vk9drqa1.jpg?width=8463&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6818253c7d90e73991cd7891c4328618ab3a3751 https://www.cannabishomesciences.com/documentation/rxce-home-page
2023.03.30 00:43 old_shows [CASIO] DW-6600
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My all-time favorite G-Shock from Casio, first made in 1994. The DW-6600 was the first G-Shock to feature the “Electro Luminescence” backlight which illuminates the entire display. The watch came to prominence in the movie “American Sniper” as it has been documented to have been issued to the SEALs during deployment and training. The Casio DW-6600 effectively replaced the Rolex Submariner as the standard SEAL watch for several reasons: submitted by old_shows to Watches [link] [comments]
-low cost -light weight -shock protection -reliable 200-meter water resistance -24 hour mode -electro-luminescent backlight which stays illuminated for 3 seconds after being pressed
I have purchased several of these over the years, there are plenty of different bezel and case combinations. Most versions have a backlight display which is specific to its respective model. The classic “G” backlight seen in this model and the blank background can both be seen in the original version 1199.
2023.03.30 00:41 outside_chicago [WTS] Enlightened Equipment Custom Items: Jacket (Men's M), Pullover (Men's M) and Enigma Quilt (20F/Reg/Reg) Weights In Post
Pictures and Verification
Prices include PP GS fee and USPS shipping! EE Torrid Pullover: Men's Medium, Standard Torso, Standard Hood, Black 20D/Yellow 7D (Custom), 9.48 oz SOLD to u/xTheManUpstairs
--- EE Torrid Jacket: Men's Medium, Collar, Standard Torso, Charcoal 10D/Salmon 10D (Custom), 8.20 oz
$185 value, selling for $125
Used, in excellent condition. No rips, holes, or stains. Selling because I'm not a "hat" guy so I always grab the hooded jackets from my closet, and not this one.
--- EE Enigma 20F APEX Sleeping Quilt: Regular Length, Regular Width, Coyote 10D/Red 10D (Custom), 30.00 oz SOLD to u/West_707
All pictures are of the actual items for sale, taken at the time of the listing, and reflect their current condition/appearance.
Items come from a pet-friendly, smoke-free home and have been stored in clean, cool, and dry utility tubs inside my apartment.
submitted by outside_chicago
to GearTrade [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 00:40 outside_chicago [WTS] Enlightened Equipment Custom Items: Jacket (Men's M), Pullover (Men's M) and Enigma Quilt (20F/Reg/Reg) Weights In Post
Pictures and Verification
Prices include PP GS fee and USPS shipping! EE Torrid Pullover: Men's Medium, Standard Torso, Standard Hood, Black 20D/Yellow 7D (Custom), 9.48 oz SOLD to u/xTheManUpstairs
--- EE Torrid Jacket: Men's Medium, Collar, Standard Torso, Charcoal 10D/Salmon 10D (Custom), 8.20 oz
$185 value, selling for $125
Used, in excellent condition. No rips, holes, or stains. Selling because I'm not a "hat" guy so I always grab the hooded jackets from my closet, and not this one.
--- EE Enigma 20F APEX Sleeping Quilt: Regular Length, Regular Width, Coyote 10D/Red 10D (Custom), 30.00 oz SOLD to u/West_707
All pictures are of the actual items for sale, taken at the time of the listing, and reflect their current condition/appearance.
Items come from a pet-friendly, smoke-free home and have been stored in clean, cool, and dry utility tubs inside my apartment.
submitted by outside_chicago
to ULgeartrade [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 00:28 outlyer993 [USA - NYC] [H] Gaggia Classic Pro w/ accessories [W] PayPal, Venmo
Gaggia Classic Pro, latest revision with 9-bar spring installed and single hole steaming tip.
The machine was used with Third Wave espresso water, backflushed daily and cleaned with the Gaggia Decalcifier Descaler monthly. It was used to make 2 doubles per day and occasional milk drinks on weekends. All extensively cleaned internally and externally.
The group head was upgraded with a new silicone gasket and it includes the Gaggia bottomless portfilter, standard double spout portafilter, and single, double and triple baskets.
The manual is included, only the original box is not. Condition is near excellent.
Asking $350 and will ship anywhere in the US.
Pictures with timestamp
- Third Wave Water Espresso Profile (12 gallons) sealed
- Gaggia Bottomless Portafilter
- Blind Basket
- Alternate OPV Springs (6.5bar, 5bar, 11.5 bar) from Shades of Coffee 
- Alternate Steaming Tip 
August 11, 2020
Reason to Sell
Upgraded to a dual boiler machine
submitted by outlyer993
to coffeeswap [link] [comments]
2023.03.30 00:16 petiepablo888 CMV: tipping culture absolves big business from paying workers a living wage and should be outlawed
Service industry workers across the US rely on tips to earn a living. The fair labor standards act established that business could reduce the pay of tipped workers to only $2.13 per hour if they earn more than $30 per month in tips. That’s abhorrent in our current economy.
Lets put aside existing local or state laws increasing minimum wage and think about the concept of tipping in general.
These tipping rules basically say that a business doesn’t have to pay a worker because their customers are paying the worker.
Now that tipping has become even more prevalent, existing not just for direct service but also indirect transactions like pickup at a coffee shop, corporate America is earning even more money while the already struggling working American suffers even more. Add to that the fact that standard tip expectation used to be 15% and now is 20%, and the future looks grim and unaffordable.
I am sick of rising prices and more expectation to tip workers. Big businesses cannot keep getting away with dumping the cost of everything on customers. We’re going broke.
*note: I do tip, I just think it’s an incredibly broken system. I try to eat at home when I can avoid businesses where I’m expected to do so.
submitted by petiepablo888
to changemyview [link] [comments]
2023.03.29 23:47 Slow_Art4543 Opinions on my Contextualization and Thesis for a prompt on political change from 1890-1920
In the period before 1890 to 1920, the U.S. was in the Gilded Age which only saw reform in the coinciding period of the Progressive Era and Gilded Age. The 1870s and 1880s saw the rise of complex laissez-faire capitalist management, structure, and business techniques. This includes Rockefeller's horizontal integration and Carnegie's vertical integration, the difference being that horizontal integration buys out a companies competitors, and vertical integration controls the entire supply chain and resources. This era also saw a spike in immigration from eastern Europe such as Jews from Russia, Poles, and Italians that were poor and looking for industrial jobs in the north. This combination of unregulated and consequentially poor working conditions and work days as well as influxes of poor immigrants coming from authoritarian regimes in eastern Europe, saw a rise to radical ideals and clash between management and labor within companies, as well as labor unions appearing to create reform such as the Knights of Labor or AFL. The Knights of Labor had a more radical socialist aspect with part of their goals to have the laborers replace the management in the role of owners. The AFL supported higher wages, better working conditions, etc. So, out of this rise of unregulated and unforeseen economic growth, there was dissent among labor and this sparked reform at the end of the Gilded Age and into the Progressive Era to regulate this and better represent the people. In the period between 1890-1920, the extent to which the Progressive movement fostered political change in the U.S. was large. On one hand, there was still reluctance and opposition to children and African Americans as well as black education but scientific theories on how our minds work and to apply that to institutions was growing during the Progressive movement, such as Freudian psychology, a lot of this persisted beyond this era and didn't foster much change in the U.S., but was a building block. On the other hand, there was major legislation passed such as the 17th amendment for direct election of senators and the initiative, reform, and referendum method of legislation that Theodore Roosevelt insisted, put the power into the hands of the people. There was also a large crackdown on trusts and large companies, as well as observation into large corporations from Ida Tarbell for example into Standard Oil, looking for corruption. These people were known as muckrakers and were prominent in the Progressive movement, antitrust legislation began with the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890 with Benjamin Harrison.
submitted by Slow_Art4543
to APUSH [link] [comments]