Next housing crash prediction

My [22M] Girlfriend [20F] has terrible anxiety and vaginismus which has killed our sex life

2023.03.30 06:58 ThrowRA102938475699 My [22M] Girlfriend [20F] has terrible anxiety and vaginismus which has killed our sex life

So my girlfriend and I have been dating for about a year now and I will preface this by saying I love her incredibly much and can see a life with her apart from the issues surrounding our sex life.
So for a bit of background, she struggles heavily with anxiety which definitely takes its toll. She has terrible anxiety induced insomnia which affects her pretty much every night that she has something on the next day (work, college, drinks etc).
She also struggles a lot with self doubt and body image issues (I am always reassuring and complimenting her on her abilities, appearance etc). Gut issues like bloating (potentially also anxiety induced) also don’t help with the body image thing either.
Then there’s the issue of vaginismus (again, probably also anxiety induced). The first few months of us being together there was no issues at all with penetration. She has told me that she have issues with previous partners before me however and had seen a pelvic floor therapist and used dilators to help resolve that, but stopped using them and threw them away a year (as a sort of celebration that she defeated it) before we got together.
Also want to be clear - I have never once pressured her into penetrative sex especially not with the vaginismus. I have always been super clear that it doesn’t worry me and we don’t need penetration to have good sex and at the beginning of symptoms when could still PIV but sometimes would have pain, it was always on her terms and I always asked her to communicate any pain with me so I can stop. I have always been super supportive of her through this and never pressured her or made her feel bad.
Couple other important details: - I definitely have a high libido, hers used to be just medium, wasn’t a problem at all but seems to be low now. - She has never had an orgasm and seems to think she never will. - Her mom was quite sex negative growing up, saying stuff like sex is gross/men are gross etc from teen years onward - potentially to discourage? But I think all it did is harm my GF’s ideas around sex. - Have noticed her mom can be quite dismissive of her dad and not take him seriously with requests or emotions etc. Wonder how this has affected my GF.
Anyways, it’s been probably 6 months since the last time we had penetrative sex (which is fine) and a couple more months longer than that since it was regular. Before vaginismus was an issue we would have sex multiple times a week, go for multiple rounds etc - though our living arrangements at the time allowed for this.
We have both moved back home to our parents houses for the time being (privacy isn’t an issue when at my house, but is at hers so she is usually too anxious of this to do anything at her house) so aren’t seeing each other as often as when were living in apartments with roommates - but we still probably see each other 2-4 times a week under normal circumstances, which you’d think would mean every time we meet at least at my house that we’d have some sort of sexual activity since its infrequent but this isn’t usually the case. Variety of reasons, sometimes it’s lack of sleep, sometimes she feels insecure, sometimes she is irritable and so on.
The real issue is not the lack of PIV sex but the lack of sexual activity in general. Sometimes we go a week or more without really any sexual contact beyond a few kisses and cuddles as my advances for going further get rejected more often than not and she doesn’t really initiate. Average would probably be once per week of some sort of sexual activity usually lasting less than 15min.
She also has never given me blowjob to completion - the few it’s gotten close she has got me or her to finish with hands because she doesn’t want me to finish in her mouth (which is fine, she has a very overactive gag reflex) but problem is usually she’ll give head for about a minute then just ask me to finish myself off while she watches then it’s all finished for the night.
She also doesn’t really let me go down on her very often anymore despite her always enjoying it (at least that’s what she says and how she acts) and knowing how much I love it, and sometimes when I do she’ll just get me to wrap up early to just stop or on occasion to give me one of those BJs despite me being perfectly happy to go forever. Think she can get insecure about me being down there and seeing her body from that angle as well.
I also get a lot of the typical “can we just have one night without any sexual stuff/all you think about is sex” sorta shit which just deflates me, but I feel like she says it as a defence mechanism to deflect from her insecurities or whatever the reason she doesn’t want to may be.
I don’t want to have sex just to get off - I want to have sex because it’s the most intimate time with her and emotionally important to me. I think she must think I’m just a man with testosterone making me horny all the time, which while true, doesn’t mean I should just get over it as I don’t care for finishing more so the actual experience with her. I have resorted to masturbating a 3-5 times a week which just makes me feel lonely and want her.
Occasionally we’ll have a night where it’s really intimate and fun and all my worries go away but this is like once a month max otherwise its the typical rejection or half ass blowjob/3 min of me giving her head. The good nights are still usually max 20-30 min and never second round or anything - we might do 69 (usually not as she gets insecure of me seeing her in that position) or something and thats as adventurous as it gets lol. Have talked about anal or pegging but she just seems indifferent so haven’t really pursued it much.
She hasn’t pursued any sort of treatment for her vaginismus since this has been occurring with us (she mentioned at the start of the year she wanted to get over it, but nothing happened since then) which hurts a lot and makes my stomach churn to think that she obviously cared enough about sex with her FWB’s before me to use dilators and such to fix it. But won’t do it now?
I just feel like I can’t really bring up wanting her to see a pelvic floor therapist and dilating again as it isn’t my place and I don’t want to seem selfish making it about me. And it makes her emotional to think about it and how daunting the road ahead to fixing it is. I guess it’s likely also anxiety and upbringing related and so would want her to see someone (CBT?) for that but don’t know how to approach the subject without coming across as selfish, seem like I’m guilt tripping her or hurting her feelings.
I just feel really undesired and inadequate due to lack of her initiating and all of the rejection/dismissals toward my end and I really really miss what we had pre vaginismus. I really love this woman and love being intimate with her and all other parts of our relationship are great. I am so empathetic and supportive with all the roadblocks (vaginismus, anxiety, body image, insomnia) she has run into on the way but it seems like she gets too overwhelmed by all of them and then doesn’t want to do anything about any of it. Which I completely understand, but I can’t keep going like this. Any advice?
submitted by ThrowRA102938475699 to sex [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:54 persephone21 Post-adoption blues (2.5 weeks in with 2.5 year old dog)

Hi everyone,
I figured I'd chronicle a bit of my post-adoption journey here in case it helps anyone else (and to get it off my chest). I adopted my dog from Hawaii, and he arrived 2.5 weeks ago. He is a ~40lb Pharaoh hound mix (looks just like a pharaoh hound). I spent two days with him in Hawaii before adopting him and he flew here to where I live (Oregon). He is a very sweet dog, very gentle, has yet to bark, doesn't drool, snuggly, good in a car, gets along with all dogs, and, while cautious with new people, generally friendly (not reactive), and sleeps through the night now that I've figured out a bed situation he likes.
I'm 35, married, I have my own online business, and don't have my own kids (I do have a 19-year-old stepson). I have wanted a dog for a few years because I love animals, do not plan on having kids (it is not for me), and it just felt like one of the more worthwhile things you could do (and I wanted to have the experience at least once in life because I've never had a dog).
Basically - it has been hard for me. My dog is not a bad dog at all, but he has never lived in a house and was not house-trained. He gets severe anxiety being in a crate (for now), so that's not an option. I think he previously lived outside, had 0 training, and never walked on a leash. In our house, he basically just doesn't *settle*. Nervous pacing, doesn't know where to go other than the two couches and sometimes one of his many beds. To get him to chill out, I have to tether him near one of his beds with one of his leashes, at which point he will lie down and chill (I am always in the room supervising, like when I cook dinner or need to do laundry). To sum it up - my life before this was relatively quiet. My autistic stepson can be loud and annoying, but he's 19 so I can reason with him. It was just me, my cat, my stepson, and my husband, and I spent the majority of my time alone doing my creative activities.
The biggest challenge for me has been what I just described - the dog's nervous energy. He had two long walks today, some training, played with his toys, and got half of his dinner using a new snuffle mat, but for some reason, today he discovered all the toys I've had for him for weeks and was going crazy with them, then going around to everything in my office (a large room where I spend all my time) and biting everything, constantly pacing, just acting nuts. I took him outside for a pee break and to walk around the block (we don't yet have a fenced yard and are looking to fence the only yard we have, which is a small side yard), and he was practically sprinting on his leash (he has never done this before). Then, he managed to find what I think is human poop near a place where a homeless guy sleeps, ate it, and then continued to go crazy in the house when we came back. He is now calmly asleep next to me after I gave him some anti-anxiety hemp chews.
Basically, the dog is normal. He's not doing anything wrong. I just want to know if he'll eventually settle and figure out the house, have his sleeping places, maybe not be constantly on top of me, and be able to navigate the house himself without biting everything. I keep wondering - am I cut out for this? This has shown me how beautiful my quiet life was in many ways, and I desperately miss it. The dog has also brought some beauty into my life through daily walks, bonding, and cuddles. But right now, I still have to monitor him 24/7, and it's just A LOT. I'm up and down. Some days it feels good, some days, like I today, I feel like I made a huge mistake, and if I could go back in time and undo it, I would.
Anywayyyy would love to hear some success stories of rescues settling into their homes, feeling comfortable, calm, and having their own space. I know about the 3-3-3 rule...but honestly, my fear is that his true personality is coming out now, and he's going to be way too high energy for me, and I'll be low-key on edge all the time. I do really love this guy, and I'm bonded to him, but I also want to enjoy my life and retain some peace.
submitted by persephone21 to Puppyblues [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:50 CAREERACADEMY69 Career Academy Subject Pronouns And Possessive Adjectives

Career Academy Subject Pronouns And Possessive Adjectives submitted by CAREERACADEMY69 to u/CAREERACADEMY69 [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:49 Lemiaw Love it when you get a random message from a sim you don’t know telling you they’re crashing at my place just for their infant daughter to randomly appear at my house at 9pm, & for me to panic and start buying infant basics lol😂! I guess there’s no stranger danger in the sims

submitted by Lemiaw to thesims4 [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:49 xcardinal_copiax free car?

I am closing on a house next week. There has been a car in the garage since we first saw the house. The house is owned currently by a trust. If the car isn't removed by closing is it ours? I will be buying in wisconsin.
submitted by xcardinal_copiax to FirstTimeHomeBuyer [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:48 ZearthZ Prediction on Trailblazer Next Weapon

Just for fun, let's made a prediction and bingo on what kind of weapon Trailblazer will obtain.
I'm predicting we get a sword or a spear on Xianzhou because the two big shot during the arc are using those weapon or alternatively he/she get a pair of glove to fit the martial art theme.
My bingo on the weapon after that are: Greatsword, chakram, bow and dual gun.
submitted by ZearthZ to HonkaiStarRail [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:47 jasa457 Three months later and I suddenly find myself crying, still feeling like it happened yesterday

My breakup wasn't conventional in any sense of the word, I fell in love with a couple. I know that might be strange, I thought so too, but it happened. We were planning to move in together, we had plans lined up for the year, I had applied for houses, jobs. We spent one last day together before one of them was going to temporarily stay with family until we could find a place, it was an amazing day, one of the best days of my life, I was being welcomed into a loving environment, a family that was excited to have me, and with two people I genuinely believed and still believe were the loves of my life. Our connection felt cosmic, it felt beyond anything I had ever felt in this life.
The next day was the worst day of my life. I woke up to a phone call from his partner saying he had feelings for me, but that meant we can't be friends anymore. He told me to talk to his partner, and he said his goodbye. I tried to talk to his partner, the one I had just spent a day with, only to be met by a text saying he may or may not be ghosting me but he hasn't decided yet, and that he'd talk to me again later. Later never came. I had a mental breakdown after that and just lost it, I tried contacting them in any means I could find and ultimately they just see me as a creep now.
In the span of a week I lost everything, and I was expected to accept it, I tried but I was weak.
Three months later, I can't get over it. For a little bit I thought maybe I could move on, but everything I do reminds me of them. How fucking cliche. I've had more emotions from this than I've had with any other loss, any other breakup, losing a friend, even deaths. Something about this just hurt so much more than anything and I feel like I'm missing an entire piece of my existence. I try to do everything I can, therapy, talking about it, trying to feel every emotion, or to move on, but nothing quells the love I have in my heart for them. It's genuinely unbearable to meet someone you connect with so strongly in such a way that you can't seem to find in anyone else, even your best friends. I would give anything to be with them again, to tell them I'm sorry, to make amends. I feel so lost, hopeless, and alone.
I just keep hoping somewhere deep down that those kind men who always seemed to understand me and my values would be able to see past all the hurt and emotions and understand that I just wanted them to be part of my life. The hardest part is knowing that if I had just been patient I would likely be talking to them again by now. Instead, I'm mourning for an indefinite future.
submitted by jasa457 to BreakUps [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:47 Lupus09 It is terrifying just how quickly liberals transform into rabid nationalists.

I'm creating this post as a response to the frustration I've had with dealing with the astonishing amounts of pro-NATO groupthinking that have flooded Reddit since the start of the war in Ukraine.
Ever since the start of this war, social media has been flooded with unrelenting anti-Russian hatred and pro-NATO propaganda. Comments about Russia and the Russian people often verge on being racist and even genocidal. Any attempt to try to add nuance to the discussion is met with hysterical attacks.
All of this serves the purpose of justifying NATO. The fact that NATO is obviously an institution for American imperialism, through which it maintains military bases across western and central Europe and subordinates the militaries of the countries of these regions to a NATO command structure always headed by an American general, is now mindlessly down-voted into oblivion.
This propaganda also serves to hide the United States' own shameful role in Russia's history. Throughout the 1990s, the Clinton administration and intellectual charlatans like Jeffrey Sachs supported the 'shock therapy' that crashed Russia's economy and destroyed the lives of millions of Russians. Meanwhile, Clinton supported Yeltsin, even as Yeltsin set up fraudulent privatization programs that were designed to ensure that ownership of former Soviet state industries would be concentrated in the hands of a new oligarchy. He supported Yeltsin, even as Yeltsin ordered Russian tanks to fire on the Russian parliament when it disagreed with this privatization plan. And he supported Yeltsin, even as Yeltsin, in violation of Russian law, used his connections with this new oligarchy to control Russian media to win the 1996 election against the communist candidate.
Clinton did all of this because he hoped the new Russian oligarchy could be incorporated into the system of American-dominated international capitalism, allowing American capitalists to economically control Russia. The result was a system of hyper-concentrated economic power in which Putin mediates between these different oligarchs, dominates Russian media and uses nationalist anger to control the Russian workers.
But confronting this truth would require understanding the imperialist nature of American power - and how the exercise of that power routinely blows up in our faces. So instead, western liberals have conjured up pseudo-scientific and quasi-racist theories about the inherently 'authoritarian' nature of the Russian 'spirit' to explain why the Russian parliamentarianism of the 1990s failed. Of course, if Russians are 'inherently authoritarian,' this necessitates NATO as a permanent bulwark against this oriental menace. In the process, western liberals can forget all memories of the fact that the one time in its history that Russia appeared to be developing a semi-stable parliamentary regime, the United States did everything in its power to undermine this regime because it found it insufficiently subservient to the needs of the American-dominated international capitalist order. Instead, the American government decided to invest in Yeltsin as a reliable strongman for capitalism in Russia, only to then see that presidential system accrue to Putin.
The United States and western liberals thus helped create Putin. But because Putin has decided to pursue his own brand of Russian imperialism rather than taking orders from Washington, Russia, including its workers, is now villified as an implacable enemy of the 'civilized west.' Since the beginning of the war in Ukraine, we have seen waves of anti-Russian hysteria, including the cancellation of Russian cultural events and even a ludicrous backlash against 'poutine.'
None of this is new. This nationalist hysteria perfectly parallels the anti-German hatred that broke out in 1917 as soon as Woodow Wilson designated Germany as America's new official enemy. Of course, that wave of hatred was then used as a cover for rooting out socialists and communists across the country and breaking radicalist labor unions for their insufficient 'patriotism.'
So always remember - liberals can never be our true allies. A true socialist, as a true internationalist, prepares for a global civil war in which the American, Ukrainian and Russian workers unite to simultaneously defeat the American, Ukrainian and Russian oligarchs. Meanwhile, a liberal pretends to be a friend of the workers, while preparing to demagogue against whatever country his capitalist government designates as the next official enemy.
submitted by Lupus09 to socialism [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:46 rh200000 Rising sophomore male looking for a roommate

Hi, I am a rising sophomore male looking for a roommate for next year
I have my appointment at 4/5 at 11am and I was told to just look for off campus housing, so I’m pretty much fucked.
I am a mechanical engineer major, I am very clean and generally only use to my room to sleep, this semester i left my room at 8am everyday and usually return between 9-11pm.
At this point I have lost the privilege of picking a preferred area to live, if you have an open double, in any area, please send me a DM,
Regardless thank you for your time, I hope you all get whichever housing area you wanted the most
submitted by rh200000 to umass [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:45 KarmawantstobeBored Old Post

I have found the old post (somehow I was smart to save it-)

My Life in a Homophobic and Lowkey Racist Family
I am a Mexican teenager that uses the pronouns “They/Them”. If you came up to me, you wouldn’t know what my gender is since I have my hair cut short, I wear baggy yet nice clothes, and I have a mask on majority of the time when I’m in public. The only problem is my family. See, I live with my dad and my step-mom (my real mom abandoned me when I was a kid because she thought drugs was more important than her four kids). Both side of the family (I’ll refer my step-mom “mom” and her family “my family” in order to not confuse people) are Christians. I’m an atheist. I have been since I was 10. So whenever I have to do anything for a church, I am usually in a awkward position to the point where I ask my mom to pick me up. I also hate a lot of people, so don’t expect me to be in a party (unless I’m forced by my parents but that’s another story). I’m just an awkward kid that likes anime and hates people. Well, I came out pansexual to my parents. Well, mostly my dad. My mom on the other hand hates it. My dad supports me. I came out a year ago. I then thought that my dad would support me if I used the term “They/Them”. I came out as Non-Binary a day in October. My dad took me outside (in the cold without a coat) and left me outside for nearly 30 minutes. He told me that I would always be a girl.
“You were born as a girl, so you will always be a girl. You won’t be a boy or whatever the hell you want to be.”
His words, not mine.
I have been depressed ever since I was 11. It’s not major as before, but I’ve tried to commit suicide twice already. When I tried to, my parents sent me to a mental hospital. Then when I came back, I was acted all nice just to hide my true self. My parents believed that I was just trying to cause drama. I have actually starved myself, cut myself, making myself throw up. What’s worse is that my family likes to bring up things from my past and stuff like, “Remember the time when you thought of being a boy? (My dad told me this year when my younger cousins were right next to me). They think I’ll end up like my real mother. I can’t tell anybody in my family that I’m pansexual and non-binary because they hate gay people and will disown anyone.
I forgot to mention that my family on my dad side is kind of racist. You see, I have a Korean brother. Both me and him look alike, so people just assume that we’re both Mexicans. My dad likes to call me his ‘beaner’ because I’m part Mexican. Then, earlier this year, my dad’s mom said, “I wish all of these Mexicans and Black people would just leave me alone. Or probably go back to wherever they came from. I can’t stand them.”
Again, her words, not mine.
I also can’t forget about all the things I have to do while my little sister gets to be on her iPad all day and yet I get yelled at. I have chores before school, after school, and during the weekends/breaks/etc. My sister is 9 and I was 7 when I started to mow the whole yard (and I have 6 acres). The only thing my sister has to do is to water the dogs and I have to tell her to because she has her eyes on her iPad. I didn’t get my iPad until this year, and I saved my money for it! She got hers four years ago on Christmas! I was never allowed an electrical device until I was in my double digits and was in high school. Then, whenever I tell my parents that my sister should take some of my chores, they would get mad and say, “You’re not doing a lot so stop complaining.”
A lot…
I’m not doing a lot…
Wake up at 6
Get ready for school
Feed Dogs/Cats
Water for Cats
Get Sister up and ready for school
Be ready by 6:45
Feed Dogs/Cats
Water Cats
Clean the liter box
Clean mirrors
Clean windows
Clean couches
Clean bathroom
Clean basement stairs
Sweep in the basement
Vacuum in the basement
Clean the walls in the basement
Outside (when nice)
Sweep the barn
Mow the whole yard
Clean around the fences
Burn the trash
Clean around the house
Clean around the barns (we have 2)
Clean around the trees
Clean the barns (inside)
Clean around the burn hole
*clean-cutting raking picking sticks etc.
Outside (Winter)
Shovel the back porch/front porch
Shovel the driveway
Burn the trash
All of my chores are done by myself….
I can’t even get a job until I’m out of the house because my parents said, “Who’s going to do all of the stuff.”
I don’t know if this goes to entiledparents or toxic-family, but here you go. Just two more years until I’m free.
submitted by KarmawantstobeBored to entitledparents [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:43 Termina-Ultima ILPT Request: I shoplifted from Walmart but didn’t get caught but they’re suspicious now.

ILPT: I shoplifted from Walmart and got “caught” sort of but not busted. What do I do next?
I have been taking medicine for awhile now from the same Walmart and I got stopped at checkout by a plain clothes lady. She asked me where is boxes I had. I told her I put them on a shelf and they followed me to the location and of course they weren’t there. I just said maybe somebody moved them. It’s in an eilse where the cameras are blocked but they told me they would look at the cameras but I got let go and they let me check out and go. What do I do next? Am I going to like be arrested at my house or something? I’m definitely NOT going back. I already felt bad for awhile but I guess I just was careless. Are they building a case? Do they check license plates? Anything will be helpful. Like I said I’m not going back there and I didn’t admit to anything while I was there.
submitted by Termina-Ultima to IllegalLifeProTips [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:41 Flashlight_Inspector What would the PRT ratings and assessments be for the Madrigal family from Encanto?

Bruno's power sounds like something the PRT would salivate over. He's essentially a precog that can clearly see into any point of the future he wants, that also lets anyone with him view it, that also shows how to change the outcome, while also creating a tablet that shows the prediction? That also has no user lash back or side effects? He'd probably have an entire department at Watchdog dedicated towards him. I almost want to say he's a thinker 10+. That feels way too high but at the same time almost all thinkers in the setting seem to be kneecapped so hard that he'd warrant it for being such an outlier.
Pepa also has the same problem of simultaneously sounding incredibly powerful on paper while also being absolutely uncontrollable and not that useful. If she could summon tornadoes or entire hurricanes in mere moments I'd say shaker 10+. If it's only general weather such as rain or clear skies I'd dump her all the way down to shaker 2.
Julieta is a tough one because her power seems so hard to classify. I guess it's technically a tinker power? It really doesn't fit any of the categories and it's completely useless as a combative power. I want to say tinker 0 because it's just healing bread and a single mall cop could neutralize her (the threat ratings are supposed to be about how hard they are to neutralize) but at the same time I could see them giving her an absurd rating (8+) just to drill it through people's heads that she is a priority in any situation. As far as everyone else is concerned she is essentially Panacea 2.0 and she can cook tinker food using regular ingredients that has zero upkeep and has no side effects on the user. If the PRT was proactive they'd be paying her a seven digit sum to just cook nonstop in one of the most heavily fortified buildings they could build. She would probably be one of the most prolific capes in existence just from the sheer amount of lives she'd save globally with her food. But at the same time you can just shoot her in the head. Another rating that'd almost entirely be political.
Dolores is a character I assumed was weak at first and then realized would have an absurd rating. Being able to process noise from hundreds of miles all around her while picking out any conversations she wants without having sensory overload? An easy thinker 5 stranger 8 combo right off the bat. If anything I'm probably underselling her since the only way to get around her is either knowing she's within a few hundred miles of you and avoiding saying anything or just completely soundproofing a room, which is a lot harder than you'd think. She'd be the ultimate informant. Just drop her in a city for a week and she'd probably have the locations of just about every gang hideout or villain haunt for you.
Camilo feels like he'd be a stranger 1. Can perfectly imitate people, but has none of the memories of them and would instantly be found out by the most basic M/S protocols. If he could imitate brutes and get their strength then he'd probably be a stranger 2 trump 6. Only reason the trump rating isn't higher is because he can only do it with brutes. I doubt he'd be able to though, so I'd stick with stranger 1.
Antonio feels like a strictly worse version of Dolores once you get down to it. Since he has to talk to the animals around him this means he's both completely limited to whatever animals are nearby but that he can't even master more than a few at a time because he needs to verbally ask them to do what he wants. I want to say master 1+ stranger 1+ because his power just feels so gimped by his surroundings. Maybe if he was in the middle of the jungle I'd give him a positive rating. I imagine he'd have great synergy with certain capes (such as Bitch).
Luisa feels like a Brute 6 shaker 1+ because of how casually she can toss around entire houses while also applying an effect on them that keeps them completely structurally stable while moving them. That brute rating might be a little too high, I'm not sure.
Isabela would probably be a shaker 9. Her range is insane, the plants she grows aren't even effected by physics or their normal limitations, and she could easily create poisonous plants or even mix and match them alongside other plants. I imagine she'd be able to destroy an entire city if she just went all out as fast as possible.
Mirabel is a trump 0. Her power can instantly permanently neutralize any power it wants and turn the cape into a baseline human. Unfortunately the power automatically activated on itself. /s
submitted by Flashlight_Inspector to WormFanfic [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:40 Small_Net_1225 Weed head jobless narcissist husband

TLDR Ai summarized- I come from an abusive family and I married my boyfriend as a means of escaping the abuse. Now married my husband has his own issues, including alcohol and drug addiction, as well as anger problems. When I cheated on him before we got married, he became physically abusive towards me. Despite this, I stayed with him because I feared I would commit suicide if I left him. 2 years in found out I was pregnant. Throughout my pregnancy, I suffered miscarriages and abuse. Now, my husband has been jobless and smoking weed pens every day since November 2021. I feel like my mind and body are deteriorating due to the emotional and verbal abuse I have been enduring. Help
I come from an abusive family, marriage was my escape from it. I was the oldest of 10 kids, homeschooled at 14. I was looking for the attention my parents never gave me. My mother was a bipolar narcissist and cheated on my dad many times throughout their marriage, my dad a workaholic and alcoholic because of his problems with my mom. When I was 15 a 30 year old male neighbor started to groom me, thankfully I never lost my virginity to him. I also became suicidal and depressed because of how I was treated at home.
When I turned 16 August 2017, my husband then boyfriend 22 started talking to me. Our relationship was a secret. My parents normalized a lot of behavior that isn’t normal, so any red flags in my husband I did not see, or I simply looked past. My mom wasn’t supportive of my relationship when she found out because I feel that she felt like she was going to lose a good slave of hers.
Husbands short backstory- Car crash coma around 2014, he won money from it a few months before we got married. He has had headaches everyday since then. He smoked cigarettes, switching to vapes in 2018, then weed vapes around 2021. He also had alcohol problems but has stopped drinking around fall of 2021
My relationship turned sexual June 2018 with my bf and I started birth control. During that time he started working on the road. I wasn’t getting my attention I desired so I started talking to other people, I ended up cheating on him in August 2018 which was also when I started college. A few days after I cheated he came back to town. We had sex, and both of us started experiencing some flu like symptoms that later went away. But during that time he kept asking me if I cheated, I denied but then confessed. He tossed me around and hit me a couple times. I stayed because I felt like I was worthless and didn’t want to have my means of escaping my family to be gone. After he found out about what I did, he started to be verbally abusive towards me and tried to get vengeance but it didn’t work out.
I truly felt that if I broke up with him, that I would’ve committed suicide. April 2019, we got married. I was a few months shy of turning 18, but it was my escape. In May I finished my second trimester then quit college, and then we left on the road for his work. During this time I found things on his phone that he’d be in prison for. I kept telling him that if he kept doing what he was doing I’d leave him. Each time he confessed to me weeks later. Other times he’d physically abuse me for confronting him. He also picked up a really bad alcohol addiction in my opinion. He said it helped him fall asleep, and he’d piss the bed for months. I never shamed him for it.
I quit snooping on his phone to stop our fights. But then his treatment turned worse towards me. He’d always gaslight me and I thought I was losing my mind. I had no friends. I was isolated. I started doing photography on the side to make money, I never asked him for money but when he gave it he’d use it against me which made me strive harder to be independent. 2020 Covid hit. Our relationship was still the same. I never felt loved, or cherished by him. Food was my comfort during this time and I gained weight because of it. He’d always make fun of me. I never felt like a priority. He had a couple different contracts on the road that year.
December 2020 we were back home and I stopped taking birth control because I didn’t like the side effects. That same month I found out I was pregnant. He wasn’t happy. I had hyperemsis gravidarum during this time and lost over 50lbs. My husband was angry at me for not doing all of my wifely duties. My father called me a lot during this time because of his marriage problems. One night my husband got angry and he physically abused me. It was March 2021 I was 15 weeks along, a few days after the abuse I found out that I miscarried. I delivered alone because he kept complaining about his headaches, not being able to drink alcohol, and how uncomfortable the hospital was. I was depressed, and stayed in the relationship.
We went back on the road in May. I got pregnant again at the end of June 2021. But I miscarried a few days later, I think it was because of CBD gummies he gave me a few weeks before. I never took alcohol or drugs since. I told myself that I’d be leaving him within 6 months because of his verbal and emotional abuse towards me. His job ended in November. We went back home.
January 2022 I found out I was pregnant. He wasn’t happy. My entire pregnancy I was mistreated. I was sick like a dog with hyperemsis gravidarum. He’d force me to clean up around the house. I finally was able to eat food after 17 weeks. His attitude never changed towards me my entire pregnancy.
From November 2021 he has been jobless, and smoking weed pens every single day. He makes a lot of excuses to not do anything. He wants me to put all of the effort in everything. He’s still verbally and emotionally abusive. The last time I was physically abused was December 2022 and I told him I’d call cops if he dared to again. My mind and body feels like it’s deteriorating. He doesn’t see the urgency of getting back to work. He has a huge stash of guns, and threatened to shoot me once.
I’m sick and tired. I know I deserve better. How do I leave? What do I do?
submitted by Small_Net_1225 to Marriage [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:40 Suspicious_Report_90 Untitled

Here I am sitting in a dark room opening my laptop preparing myself to a watch a video I recorded from our home, I wasn't ready for it I knew something was not right ever since she began working for that guy, I inhale deeply a let out a huge sigh and pointed the cursor to the video file and watched.

I was right she was having an affair, my world came crashing down as I watched her fucking that guy in our house in our own bed the worse part is she was enjoying every second of it everytime that asshole rammed her inside out I can her expresion being elated, I've never seen her expression like that before everytime I do it with her she just looks bored, she was drowning in pleasure moaning like there was no tomorrow.

I hated it, my anger kept rising as continued watching, to the point that I could only see red, why has she done something like this? have I not been a good husband? everything she asked for I always gave to her, everytime she wants a time with me I spend it with her, why? why? WHY!?

Was it my fault?

It wasn't like this there were times when both of us would be happy with each others company, I met my wife Shoko when were still in college, I confess to her the first day of school because I was mesmerized by her beauty, I thought she would reject me but to my surprised she said yes, I was so happy that I felt I floating in cloud 9 and shouted in joy.

Ever since then we've been together after graduation I took job and started working hard a year later I proposed to her and showed her a ring, a ring that I worked hard for her, with tears in her eyes she accepted my proposal and we got married the next year, It was the happiest moment of our lives, I thought it would last forever, I thought we'd be together forever but fate itself has something in store for me.

3 years in our marriage Shoko decided she wanted to work, then and there I shouldn't have agreed, but I wasn't the type of person who is controlling, we weren't poor we also wasn't rich, we live a perfectly balanced normal life, I can easily provide for the both use but she wanted to help somehow so without hesitation I agreed.

She began working a couple of months later, but as the days goes I noticed she started to become more and more distant and cold and before I knew she began to come how late at night, when she was still a housewife she would cook for both of us her cooking was delicious and it was the many reasons I wanted to go home early so I can taste her homemade cooking, but nowadays I just eat microwave meals.

From time to time she do have off days but it seems she's still focus on working and can't stop messaging on her phone, I've invited her to go eat sometimes and flat out rejects me telling me I should just eat by myself, her personality started to change she became more and more detest towards me and she wouldn't allow me touch her anymore everytime ask to the deed with her she just tell me to use my hand and the way she looks at me is like looking someone who jsut failed in life.

Her love for me is gone, but still I didn't lose hope that maybe one day she'll open up to me again and our love with each other would be rekindled, but I think I was just hoping for nothing.

One day I came home only to see an unfamiliar shoes in the hallway pretty sure it wasn't mine, as I walk in I saw Shoko talking to guy she introduced me to him, his name was Mr.Akizaki Shoko's boss guy was good looking, I mean I'm not gonna lie I was good looking too, but this guy could be an actor just disguising as a business man on how good looking he is.

Everytime Shoko talks about him I could see the spark on her eyes as if she was talking to someone she's been in love with for a very long time, I know because she used to look at me like that, her and Mr. Akizaki seems like very close friend, but I noticed something for a guy who's all about business he's clothing seems to be in disorder and my wife also look the same and they both out of breath.

I soon realize something was off after her boss left I asked her what was going on and she told me nothing happened, she scoffed at me and told me that she was just being hospitable to her boss and she can't believe I'm being suspecious about her and asked me "What's the matter with you?" I asked her the same thing but she just told me she doesn't want to argue anymore and went to take a bath and went to sleep.

I knew something was going on and I'm not going to wait for it much longer the next day my off day and while she was working I bought several suvaillance equipment, cameras, recorders, nanny cams the whole shebang and started putting them in discreet locations after everything was ready I waited.

And here I am watching them cheating behind my back recorded everything I couldn't help it and just started crying not of sorrow but of anger and resentment, I was so angry I was ready to march and scream at her but I didn't, I stopped myself and calmed down and called a good friend of mine to talk about it and have a drink.

At the bar:

"She did what!?"

my friend screamed when he heard the story, Keisuke Nato is good friend of my mind, no he's a like brother to me, we've been togther since middle school and always there when I needed some company to drink with.

"So what are you gonna do?"

"I don't know...I-I just don't know" as I drink the whole glass of whiskey to drown my sorrow

"Well you have the recordings, why not hire a lawyer? sue them both for damages squeeze them dry you know"

"It's just that easy those 2 can easily pay me from the money they're worked for, no I want them to taste karma, I want them to feel something to the point they won't be doing that shit until they die" I poured another whiskey to my glass

" what are you planning"


At this point I have no idea what to do, as continued drinking something caught my attention I saw a guy in black, he looks like one of those hitman guys in the movie, he had suitcase with him and then started to call someone and said "Job's done" and then lightbulb.

"I have an idea"

"Oh really?" Keisuke questioned

"Yeah I teach those 2 a lesson they would never forget, I lesson about fear"

"And how in the world would you achieved that?"

"Do you still have "those" guns?" I asked

"Yeah it's still there"

"Give them to me even the bullets"

"Whoa! you're not planning to shoot them right? I mean those things aren't even real they're just replicas it can't be chambered with real bullets those guns are specifically made to fire blank ones, those are prop guns"

"Exactly" I exclaimed "Listen this is my plan..."

I told Keisuke everything and I could see a wicked smile forming from his face and then we both started laughing like maniacal villains people where looking at use weirdly but I just don't give a shit, cause my perfect revenge is about to begin.

I waited for the day my wife would go on those company retreat, after several days she told me that her company is going out of town to a well know hot spring.

"I won't be home the next week, so don't even trying calling me while I'm there I'll be relaxing with some friends, I don't need you to call me every minute"

"Whatever" I just responed coldly to her

Days later she then left, I called Keisuke and brough the guns to my home.

"So where are we making these secret room of yours?"

My plan is to make a secret room where I can hang those guns and make it look like a room of a hitman, I remember out closet has these empty space that covered up and decided to use it.

For a couple of ours both me Keisuke started working ripping walls, nailing woods, painting etc, a few days later our job was done and the room looks glorious like it came out from a movie set or something.

"Whew dude this looks legit" Keisuke added

"I know"

"So did it work?"

"Oh yeah, she's suspecious of me"

Before all of this to make sure that my "Hitman" persona looks legit I purposely left some vague and cryptic cluse around the house, to make it look like I've been sloppy one of those was a briefcase full of pictures of wanted men, mugshots, wanted posters, some traget pics etc, I love the look of bewilderment look on her face when she first saw it.

I've also asked Keisuke to send me some letters through mail, Shoko has a habit in retrieving mails, she hands me some of those letters Keisuke made in black enveloped and I could see a curious looked on her face

Left some "bloodied" clothes in the washer which she obviously saw but refuse to elaborate on it and now she's been looking at me wary.

Also I acted like I recieved anonymous call from someone in the middle of the night, but it was Keisuke I asked him to call me in a specific time of the night were Shoko was still awake, I'm pretty sure she heard me talk like "Considered it done" or "You won't be worrying about that man anymore Mr made-up-name here" couldn't help but laugh from time to time and I'm sure she's starting to wonder what is happening cause it's bothering her.

A few months later I was preparing to go to work actually I'm on leave but Shoko doesn't know and then asked her a favor

"Shoko a friend of mine will come here to pick something up I don't have time can you kindly give it to him, its a black gym bag upstairs in the closet"

"Yeah sure I'll give it him" she replied

I can see the look of anxiousness on her face, it's working, I said my goodbyes and left and went to the bar me and Keisuke would go frquently and looked at the surveillance camera at home as both of us started drinking enjoying something that's about to unfold.

I could see Shoko pacing back and forth mumbling to herself about me changing and being so shady, a few moments later she heard a knock on the door, she opened it and lo behold a bald man wearing a black suit and shades was at the door, I could hear Shoko shriek when she saw the man standing in front of the door.

"Where did you find that guy again" I asked Keisuke

"Oh Manza he's good friend mine, we work togther in construction before a real gentle giant but has a very intimidating aura"

"Oh does he know the plan?"

"Don't worry I laid it out for him"

Shoko's POV:
What the hell!? who's this bald guy? is this Shinji's friend? I didn't know he has such friend!?

"Uhmmm...c-can I help you?"

"I'm to pick up something from your husband"

"Oh right the bag uhmm wait one moment"

I hurridly went to the bed room to fetch Shinji's bag, what is going on here, first those briefcases with mugshot of criminals and other people with targets on them and then those black envelopes and then those bloodied clothes in the washer, what is Shinji involved to? is there something he hasn't told me? I need to hurry and give the bag so he can leave, where is it?

Shinji's POV

Shoko entered the bedroom and started to frantically looking for the bag as she reach for the closet I execute a command on my laptop to slight make the door of the secret room open and sure enough I can see Shoko peeking and the look on her face was priceless, both me and Keisuke are having a blast like kids watching at a funny home video.

Shoko's POV

What the hell is this!? I didn't know there was a secret room inside our closet, what is happening here? I don't have time to investigate it, I grabbed the bag and went down stairs and handed it over to the bald man, before he can grab it for unknow reasons the content of the bag fell to the floor and I saw several bundle of cash in all 10,000 Yen, I was shocked to see a huge amount of money like that, the bald man shook his head and started picking up the money and looked at me and said.

"If I were I'd keep my mouth shut if you don't want any trouble"

All I could do is nod after, several minutes he said his goodbyes and left, I was shaken up, did my husband always have friends like that? but I'm more curious about that secret room in the closet, I decided to see what's on the other side.

Shinji's POV

"Looks like my skills in making props is still useful heh" Keisuke responded after seeing the whole cash of fake money spilling out

Keisuke once work in the entertainment business as Production Designer, he made a lot of stuff the look real but fake, I'm glad to have a friend like him with that kind of skills, because of that my charades will be undoubtedly believable.

"Hey! look your wife's entering the room again looks the cat got curious"

"You know what to do"

"Don't worry I'm ready" he then pull out a phone and dialed a number

Shoko's POV

God what the hell is this!? when did Shinji- guns!? this room looks like an office, there are some pictures of men on the wall, some maps, I don't even want to know what's inside those safes, is Shinji a hired killer or something!? oh god if he is one then- these guns look real, videos of people being torured? did he do all of these? oh no no no no, this must be a prank...right it's just a prank I think he's just trying to scare me. heh

oh no did he find out I was having an affair? shit...

wait a journal.


Oh my god I can't believe this Shinji's a hitman!? when!? the journal detailed everything in how he killed his victims.

huh? what's this? it's about me

"October 7th

My wife has become cold and distant towards me, ever since she began working day by day I'm starting lose her, did I do something wrong? I was good husband provided her with everything she ever wanted, I never missed anything during special occasions and I did my best everything to make her happy, is she having an affair? is she cheating on me? I hid this 2nd life of mine from her because I want her to live normally but it she is cheating behind my back then I have no choice but to show her the real me...."

Oh no, what have I done? I don't want to die yet, I should just apologized and tell him the-

*You recieved one new message*

What!-oh it's just a voicemail, that scared me.

"Mr.Hayabusa I just want to thank you for getting rid of those men thanks to you business is booming, I already transfered some money in your account and a little bonus for making them suffer, I like the screams they make when you tortured have you seen the videos? I've sent them to you, anways thansk again and oh about your wife..."

About me!?

"If you think your wife is cheating on you I have a man ready to investigate her and follow her, just give me a call when you're interested, I'm sure we can quickly discover dirt on her and then you can punish her whenever you like"

No no no no no no! is this a dream this isn't happening is my husband really a hitman? has he killed people!? am I going to die!? I need to go out of here!

Shinji's POV

After Shoko entered the secret room I hurridly went home Keisuke told me she's in a state of panic and went down stairs after exiting the secret room, It seems my plan is working she can't tell the lie from the truth and that's fine by me all I had to do is just keep this charade up.

As enter the house I saw Shoko in front of the door, I can see the paranoia settling in and she suddenly hug me tight

"I love you! I love you! I love you!"

"Shoko what's the problem? you look tense as if you've seen a ghost"

"N-Nothing I just miss this can I hold you a bit longer"

"Of course" what a gullible bitch
And just like that Shoko did a 180 and became a loving wife again, I didn't know it would work like this I knew she had weak mind as she's easily get's persuaded, all I did was plant lies on her head and her weak mind accepted it without a hinch.

6 Months later....

Keisuke and I decide to met up and started drinking talked how our day was and how was everything

"'s life? how's Shoko doing?" he asked me

"You have no idea ever since that day she's been loyal as dog to me, everything I ask her to do she does it without any hesitation, she hasn't figured it out that all of it was just an elaborate lie to keep her in check"

"What about that Akizaki dude what happened to him?"

"Oh him, Shoko ended her relationship with him the day she left that company, I could hear her that night when she told her she's ending everything with him, erased his information from her phone and blocked him in every social media, but not before I copied everything from her phone just to be sure.

Shoko quit her job a week a later and has become a housewife again but she has become more paranoid than before.

I hired PI to investigate that Akizaki asshole and a month later the PI gave me a lot of receipt that I used to kicked that jerk out of his position by sending those to his bosses, what's worse Shoko wasn't the only one that fucker has been fucking, it seems he's been in bed with other co-workers and some his bosses wives, last I heard that guy is already in prison paying compensation with every money he earned."

"damn karma's a bitch"


"What about you? aren't you gonna divorced Shoko?"

"Not yet, I'm still using her as I see fit, she's a great onahole you know"

"Oh god don't tell me that"

"Don't worry as soon as I'm bored with her, I'm gonna sue her for everything but for now I'll just enjoy what little time I have with her"


*cling the sound of glass toasting"

The End
submitted by Suspicious_Report_90 to antiNTRcorps [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:40 rachbaer Do I have to pay the higher rate of stamp duty?

My boyfriend and I own our own properties. We're completing on the purchase of a new property together and the sale of my house on Friday. His property sale is due to also complete on Friday which I know would mean only paying the normal rate of stamp duty but there's been a couple of last minute enquiries that I'm afraid is going to push this completion into next week.
My question is, since we have a 14 day window to pay stamp duty, can we hold off on paying stamp duty and see if the second property sale goes through? And then pay the lower rate if it is before the two week window is up. Or do we have to pay the higher rate due to the order of the sales and then claim it back?
submitted by rachbaer to UKPersonalFinance [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:39 viking-ship Blackouts turned into divorce

Hi, i Will start saying i probably don't have DID, i dont know. I Hope i am not offending anybody...but i felt like this community could maybe help me to understand what happened to me. (Even If this is a pretty short resume). Thank u ALL for your time and support....
When i was around 19 i started to date who would be my husband. I did used marijuana at the time. I remember one night we went to a bar, and then when we got home we started a fight. I don't remember what It was about but i felt like It wasnt me at all. Like i was watching this other person fighting with him, this person wanted him to feel guilty about something. It was odd. We married 4 years after we started dating, and It wasnt a smart move, since the relationship was problematic. We divorced after he claimed i cheated on him with an old friend of mine. I thought he was crazy because, aside our problems within the relationship, i did wanted to love him so badly, because he is such a Nice Guy. He didn't satisfied me sexually, but i thought since he was so good, and such a dear friend i wasnt going to get any better and i prefered things being like this. But i never cheated on him. He Said a Lot of times when we were fighting, i simply got out of the house and sometimes just appeared in the morning, saying i needed a walk after everything. I have no memories of that whatsoever.I Just remember going to sleep. I stopped smoking marijuana or doing any substance abuse. After the divorce, i spend the night in a friend home, and she Said she had to stay the night at work. She has a Guy roommate. I remember i Said good night to him and went to sleep at her bed. He was sleeping at the other bedroom. I cried till sleep, because i was really depressed by the breakup at the time. I woke up the next day with my genitals hurting, even my ass. I went home thinking, its hurting like i had rough sex all night long. But It was just a feeling. Later, my friend Said that the neighbour told her i had sex all night with this Guy, and he heard everything, and i was really enjoying. And asking him to do things to me. I started to ask myself if this things my ex Said could be true. I actually had proof short time later that i did went out after our fights. I started to fear myself. Like i didn't know what i was capable to do anymore, like ALL my thoughts that i wasnt really happy with him were controling my body. I never had other episodes of that, not that i am awere of. But sometimes people Tell me little things like "hey whats the name of that dude, you know the one who was always talking to you at the class". And i couldnt remember this person whatsoever, or that i talked to someone in that class at all. I went to a time where i thought i was going mad. But now i am happy with myself, but always wondering...what happened? Its scary. Like idk what some...part of me is capable to do. I dont have moments like idk how i get in somewhere or something like that. I Just sleep. Or i simply remember the time as something and then i have the prove that It wasnt. What was going on with me.......? 😭😭😭
submitted by viking-ship to DID [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:37 Choice-Bake7922 Add uranium to minecraft

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium radioactively decays by emitting an alpha particle. The half-life of this decay varies between 159,200 and 4.5 billion years for different isotopes, making them useful for dating the age of the Earth. The most common isotopes in natural uranium are uranium-238 (which has 146 neutrons and accounts for over 99% of uranium on Earth) and uranium-235 (which has 143 neutrons). Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, and slightly lower than that of gold or tungsten. It occurs naturally in low concentrations of a few parts per million in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite.[6] Many contemporary uses of uranium exploit its unique nuclear properties. Uranium-235 is the only naturally occurring fissile isotope, which makes it widely used in nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons. However, because of the tiny concentrations found in nature, uranium needs to undergo enrichment so that enough uranium-235 is present. Uranium-238 is fissionable by fast neutrons, and is fertile, meaning it can be transmuted to fissile plutonium-239 in a nuclear reactor. Another fissile isotope, uranium-233, can be produced from natural thorium and is studied for future industrial use in nuclear technology. Uranium-238 has a small probability for spontaneous fission or even induced fission with fast neutrons; uranium-235, and to a lesser degree uranium-233, have a much higher fission cross-section for slow neutrons. In sufficient concentration, these isotopes maintain a sustained nuclear chain reaction. This generates the heat in nuclear power reactors, and produces the fissile material for nuclear weapons. Depleted uranium (238U) is used in kinetic energy penetrators and armor plating.[7][8]
The 1789 discovery of uranium in the mineral pitchblende is credited to Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who named the new element after the recently discovered planet Uranus. Eugène-Melchior Péligot was the first person to isolate the metal and its radioactive properties were discovered in 1896 by Henri Becquerel. Research by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, Enrico Fermi and others, such as J. Robert Oppenheimer starting in 1934 led to its use as a fuel in the nuclear power industry and in Little Boy, the first nuclear weapon used in war. An ensuing arms race during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons that used uranium metal and uranium-derived plutonium-239. Dismantling of these weapons and related nuclear facilities is carried out within various nuclear disarmament programs and costs billions of dollars. Weapon-grade uranium obtained from nuclear weapons is diluted with uranium-238 and reused as fuel for nuclear reactors. The development and deployment of these nuclear reactors continue on a global base as they are powerful sources of CO2-free energy. Spent nuclear fuel forms radioactive waste, which mostly consists of uranium-238 and poses significant health threat and environmental impact. Uranium is a silvery white, weakly radioactive metal. It has a Mohs hardness of 6, sufficient to scratch glass and approximately equal to that of titanium, rhodium, manganese and niobium. It is malleable, ductile, slightly paramagnetic, strongly electropositive and a poor electrical conductor.[9][10] Uranium metal has a very high density of 19.1 g/cm3,[11] denser than lead (11.3 g/cm3),[12] but slightly less dense than tungsten and gold (19.3 g/cm3).[13][14]
Uranium metal reacts with almost all non-metal elements (with the exception of the noble gases) and their compounds, with reactivity increasing with temperature.[15] Hydrochloric and nitric acids dissolve uranium, but non-oxidizing acids other than hydrochloric acid attack the element very slowly.[9] When finely divided, it can react with cold water; in air, uranium metal becomes coated with a dark layer of uranium oxide.[10] Uranium in ores is extracted chemically and converted into uranium dioxide or other chemical forms usable in industry.
Uranium-235 was the first isotope that was found to be fissile. Other naturally occurring isotopes are fissionable, but not fissile. On bombardment with slow neutrons, its uranium-235 isotope will most of the time divide into two smaller nuclei, releasing nuclear binding energy and more neutrons. If too many of these neutrons are absorbed by other uranium-235 nuclei, a nuclear chain reaction occurs that results in a burst of heat or (in special circumstances) an explosion. In a nuclear reactor, such a chain reaction is slowed and controlled by a neutron poison, absorbing some of the free neutrons. Such neutron absorbent materials are often part of reactor control rods (see nuclear reactor physics for a description of this process of reactor control).
As little as 15 lb (6.8 kg) of uranium-235 can be used to make an atomic bomb.[16] The nuclear weapon detonated over Hiroshima, called Little Boy, relied on uranium fission. However, the first nuclear bomb (the Gadget used at Trinity) and the bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki (Fat Man) were both plutonium bombs.
Uranium metal has three allotropic forms:[17]
α (orthorhombic) stable up to 668 °C (1,234 °F). Orthorhombic, space group No. 63, Cmcm, lattice parameters a = 285.4 pm, b = 587 pm, c = 495.5 pm.[18] β (tetragonal) stable from 668 to 775 °C (1,234 to 1,427 °F). Tetragonal, space group P42/mnm, P42nm, or P4n2, lattice parameters a = 565.6 pm, b = c = 1075.9 pm.[18] γ (body-centered cubic) from 775 °C (1,427 °F) to melting point—this is the most malleable and ductile state. Body-centered cubic, lattice parameter a = 352.4 pm.[18]
The major application of uranium in the military sector is in high-density penetrators. This ammunition consists of depleted uranium (DU) alloyed with 1–2% other elements, such as titanium or molybdenum.[19] At high impact speed, the density, hardness, and pyrophoricity of the projectile enable the destruction of heavily armored targets. Tank armor and other removable vehicle armor can also be hardened with depleted uranium plates. The use of depleted uranium became politically and environmentally contentious after the use of such munitions by the US, UK and other countries during wars in the Persian Gulf and the Balkans raised questions concerning uranium compounds left in the soil[8][20][21][22] (see Gulf War syndrome).[16]
Depleted uranium is also used as a shielding material in some containers used to store and transport radioactive materials. While the metal itself is radioactive, its high density makes it more effective than lead in halting radiation from strong sources such as radium.[9] Other uses of depleted uranium include counterweights for aircraft control surfaces, as ballast for missile re-entry vehicles and as a shielding material.[10] Due to its high density, this material is found in inertial guidance systems and in gyroscopic compasses.[10] Depleted uranium is preferred over similarly dense metals due to its ability to be easily machined and cast as well as its relatively low cost.[23] The main risk of exposure to depleted uranium is chemical poisoning by uranium oxide rather than radioactivity (uranium being only a weak alpha emitter).
During the later stages of World War II, the entire Cold War, and to a lesser extent afterwards, uranium-235 has been used as the fissile explosive material to produce nuclear weapons. Initially, two major types of fission bombs were built: a relatively simple device that uses uranium-235 and a more complicated mechanism that uses plutonium-239 derived from uranium-238. Later, a much more complicated and far more powerful type of fission/fusion bomb (thermonuclear weapon) was built, that uses a plutonium-based device to cause a mixture of tritium and deuterium to undergo nuclear fusion. Such bombs are jacketed in a non-fissile (unenriched) uranium case, and they derive more than half their power from the fission of this material by fast neutrons from the nuclear fusion process.[24]
The main use of uranium in the civilian sector is to fuel nuclear power plants. One kilogram of uranium-235 can theoretically produce about 20 terajoules of energy (2×1013 joules), assuming complete fission; as much energy as 1.5 million kilograms (1,500 tonnes) of coal.[7]
Commercial nuclear power plants use fuel that is typically enriched to around 3% uranium-235.[7] The CANDU and Magnox designs are the only commercial reactors capable of using unenriched uranium fuel. Fuel used for United States Navy reactors is typically highly enriched in uranium-235 (the exact values are classified). In a breeder reactor, uranium-238 can also be converted into plutonium through the following reaction:[10]
Before (and, occasionally, after) the discovery of radioactivity, uranium was primarily used in small amounts for yellow glass and pottery glazes, such as uranium glass and in Fiestaware.[25]
The discovery and isolation of radium in uranium ore (pitchblende) by Marie Curie sparked the development of uranium mining to extract the radium, which was used to make glow-in-the-dark paints for clock and aircraft dials.[26][27] This left a prodigious quantity of uranium as a waste product, since it takes three tonnes of uranium to extract one gram of radium. This waste product was diverted to the glazing industry, making uranium glazes very inexpensive and abundant. Besides the pottery glazes, uranium tile glazes accounted for the bulk of the use, including common bathroom and kitchen tiles which can be produced in green, yellow, mauve, black, blue, red and other colors.
Uranium was also used in photographic chemicals (especially uranium nitrate as a toner),[10] in lamp filaments for stage lighting bulbs,[28] to improve the appearance of dentures,[29] and in the leather and wood industries for stains and dyes. Uranium salts are mordants of silk or wool. Uranyl acetate and uranyl formate are used as electron-dense "stains" in transmission electron microscopy, to increase the contrast of biological specimens in ultrathin sections and in negative staining of viruses, isolated cell organelles and macromolecules.
The discovery of the radioactivity of uranium ushered in additional scientific and practical uses of the element. The long half-life of the isotope uranium-238 (4.47×109 years) makes it well-suited for use in estimating the age of the earliest igneous rocks and for other types of radiometric dating, including uranium–thorium dating, uranium–lead dating and uranium–uranium dating. Uranium metal is used for X-ray targets in the making of high-energy X-rays.[10]
The use of uranium in its natural oxide form dates back to at least the year 79 CE, when it was used in the Roman Empire to add a yellow color to ceramic glazes.[10] Yellow glass with 1% uranium oxide was found in a Roman villa on Cape Posillipo in the Bay of Naples, Italy, by R. T. Gunther of the University of Oxford in 1912.[30] Starting in the late Middle Ages, pitchblende was extracted from the Habsburg silver mines in Joachimsthal, Bohemia (now Jáchymov in the Czech Republic), and was used as a coloring agent in the local glassmaking industry.[31] In the early 19th century, the world's only known sources of uranium ore were these mines. Mining for uranium in the Ore Mountains ceased on the German side after the Cold War ended and SDAG Wismut was wound down. On the Czech side there were attempts during the uranium price bubble of 2007 to restart mining, but those were quickly abandoned following a fall in uranium prices.[32][33]
The discovery of the element is credited to the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth. While he was working in his experimental laboratory in Berlin in 1789, Klaproth was able to precipitate a yellow compound (likely sodium diuranate) by dissolving pitchblende in nitric acid and neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide.[31] Klaproth assumed the yellow substance was the oxide of a yet-undiscovered element and heated it with charcoal to obtain a black powder, which he thought was the newly discovered metal itself (in fact, that powder was an oxide of uranium).[31][34] He named the newly discovered element after the planet Uranus (named after the primordial Greek god of the sky), which had been discovered eight years earlier by William Herschel.[35]
In 1841, Eugène-Melchior Péligot, Professor of Analytical Chemistry at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (Central School of Arts and Manufactures) in Paris, isolated the first sample of uranium metal by heating uranium tetrachloride with potassium.[31][36]
Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity by using uranium in 1896.[15] Becquerel made the discovery in Paris by leaving a sample of a uranium salt, K2UO2(SO4)2 (potassium uranyl sulfate), on top of an unexposed photographic plate in a drawer and noting that the plate had become "fogged".[37] He determined that a form of invisible light or rays emitted by uranium had exposed the plate.
During World War I when the Central Powers suffered a shortage of molybdenum to make artillery gun barrels and high speed tool steels they routinely substituted ferrouranium alloys which present many of the same physical characteristics. When this practice became known in 1916 the USA government requested several prominent universities to research these uses for uranium and tools made with these formulas remained in use for several decades only ending when the Manhattan Project and the Cold War placed a large demand on uranium for fission research and weapon development.[38][39][40]
A team led by Enrico Fermi in 1934 observed that bombarding uranium with neutrons produces the emission of beta rays (electrons or positrons from the elements produced; see beta particle).[41] The fission products were at first mistaken for new elements with atomic numbers 93 and 94, which the Dean of the Faculty of Rome, Orso Mario Corbino, christened ausonium and hesperium, respectively.[42][43][44][45] The experiments leading to the discovery of uranium's ability to fission (break apart) into lighter elements and release binding energy were conducted by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann[41] in Hahn's laboratory in Berlin. Lise Meitner and her nephew, the physicist Otto Robert Frisch, published the physical explanation in February 1939 and named the process "nuclear fission".[46] Soon after, Fermi hypothesized that the fission of uranium might release enough neutrons to sustain a fission reaction. Confirmation of this hypothesis came in 1939, and later work found that on average about 2.5 neutrons are released by each fission of the rare uranium isotope uranium-235.[41] Fermi urged Alfred O. C. Nier to separate uranium isotopes for determination of the fissile component, and on 29 February 1940, Nier used an instrument he built at the University of Minnesota to separate the world's first uranium-235 sample in the Tate Laboratory. After mailed to Columbia University's cyclotron, John Dunning confirmed the sample to be the isolated fissile material on 1 March.[47] Further work found that the far more common uranium-238 isotope can be transmuted into plutonium, which, like uranium-235, is also fissile by thermal neutrons. These discoveries led numerous countries to begin working on the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Despite fission having been discovered in Germany, the Uranverein ("uranium club") Germany's wartime project to research nuclear power and/or weapons was hampered by limited resources, infighting, the exile or non-involvement of several prominent scientists in the field and several crucial mistakes such as failing to account for impurities in available graphite samples which made it appear less suitable as a neutron moderator than it is in reality. Germany's attempts to build a natural uranium / heavy water reactor had not come close to reaching criticality by the time the Americans reached Haigerloch, the site of the last German wartime reactor experiment.[48]
On 2 December 1942, as part of the Manhattan Project, another team led by Enrico Fermi was able to initiate the first artificial self-sustained nuclear chain reaction, Chicago Pile-1. An initial plan using enriched uranium-235 was abandoned as it was as yet unavailable in sufficient quantities.[49] Working in a lab below the stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, the team created the conditions needed for such a reaction by piling together 360 tonnes of graphite, 53 tonnes of uranium oxide, and 5.5 tonnes of uranium metal, a majority of which was supplied by Westinghouse Lamp Plant in a makeshift production process.[41][50]
Two major types of atomic bombs were developed by the United States during World War II: a uranium-based device (codenamed "Little Boy") whose fissile material was highly enriched uranium, and a plutonium-based device (see Trinity test and "Fat Man") whose plutonium was derived from uranium-238. The uranium-based Little Boy device became the first nuclear weapon used in war when it was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945. Exploding with a yield equivalent to 12,500 tonnes of trinitrotoluene, the blast and thermal wave of the bomb destroyed nearly 50,000 buildings and killed approximately 75,000 people (see Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki).[37] Initially it was believed that uranium was relatively rare, and that nuclear proliferation could be avoided by simply buying up all known uranium stocks, but within a decade large deposits of it were discovered in many places around the world.[51][52]
The X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile) and was the first reactor designed and built for continuous operation. Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor I, located at the Atomic Energy Commission's National Reactor Testing Station near Arco, Idaho, became the first nuclear reactor to create electricity on 20 December 1951.[53] Initially, four 150-watt light bulbs were lit by the reactor, but improvements eventually enabled it to power the whole facility (later, the town of Arco became the first in the world to have all its electricity come from nuclear power generated by BORAX-III, another reactor designed and operated by Argonne National Laboratory).[54][55] The world's first commercial scale nuclear power station, Obninsk in the Soviet Union, began generation with its reactor AM-1 on 27 June 1954. Other early nuclear power plants were Calder Hall in England, which began generation on 17 October 1956,[56] and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, which began on 26 May 1958. Nuclear power was used for the first time for propulsion by a submarine, the USS Nautilus, in 1954.[41][57]
Prehistoric naturally occurring fission Main article: Natural nuclear fission reactor In 1972, the French physicist Francis Perrin discovered fifteen ancient and no longer active natural nuclear fission reactors in three separate ore deposits at the Oklo mine in Gabon, West Africa, collectively known as the Oklo Fossil Reactors. The ore deposit is 1.7 billion years old; then, uranium-235 constituted about 3% of the total uranium on Earth.[58] This is high enough to permit a sustained nuclear fission chain reaction to occur, provided other supporting conditions exist. The capacity of the surrounding sediment to contain the health-threatening nuclear waste products has been cited by the U.S. federal government as supporting evidence for the feasibility to store spent nuclear fuel at the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository.[58]
Above-ground nuclear tests by the Soviet Union and the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s and by France into the 1970s and 1980s[23] spread a significant amount of fallout from uranium daughter isotopes around the world.[59] Additional fallout and pollution occurred from several nuclear accidents.[60]
Uranium miners have a higher incidence of cancer. An excess risk of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners, for example, has been documented and linked to their occupation.[61] The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, a 1990 law in the US, required $100,000 in "compassion payments" to uranium miners diagnosed with cancer or other respiratory ailments.[62]
During the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, huge stockpiles of uranium were amassed and tens of thousands of nuclear weapons were created using enriched uranium and plutonium made from uranium. After the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, an estimated 600 short tons (540 metric tons) of highly enriched weapons grade uranium (enough to make 40,000 nuclear warheads) had been stored in often inadequately guarded facilities in the Russian Federation and several other former Soviet states.[16] Police in Asia, Europe, and South America on at least 16 occasions from 1993 to 2005 have intercepted shipments of smuggled bomb-grade uranium or plutonium, most of which was from ex-Soviet sources.[16] From 1993 to 2005 the Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program, operated by the federal government of the United States, spent approximately US $550 million to help safeguard uranium and plutonium stockpiles in Russia. This money was used for improvements and security enhancements at research and storage facilities.[16]
Safety of nuclear facilities in Russia has been significantly improved since the stabilization of political and economical turmoil of the early 1990s. For example, in 1993 there were 29 incidents ranking above level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale, and this number dropped under four per year in 1995–2003. The number of employers receiving annual radiation doses above 20 mSv, which is equivalent to a single full-body CT scan,[63] saw a strong decline around 2000. In November 2015, the Russian government approved a federal program for nuclear and radiation safety for 2016 to 2030 with a budget of 562 billion rubles (ca. 8 billion dollars). Its key issue is "the deferred liabilities accumulated during the 70 years of the nuclear industry, particularly during the time of the Soviet Union". Approximately 73% of the budget will be spent on decommissioning aged and obsolete nuclear reactors and nuclear facilities, especially those involved in state defense programs; 20% will go in processing and disposal of nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, and 5% into monitoring and ensuring of nuclear and radiation safety.[64]
Along with all elements having atomic weights higher than that of iron, uranium is only naturally formed by the r-process (rapid neutron capture) in supernovae and neutron star mergers.[65] Primordial thorium and uranium are only produced in the r-process, because the s-process (slow neutron capture) is too slow and cannot pass the gap of instability after bismuth.[66][67] Besides the two extant primordial uranium isotopes, 235U and 238U, the r-process also produced significant quantities of 236U, which has a shorter half-life and so is an extinct radionuclide, having long since decayed completely to 232Th. Uranium-236 was itself enriched by the decay of 244Pu, accounting for the observed higher-than-expected abundance of thorium and lower-than-expected abundance of uranium.[68] While the natural abundance of uranium has been supplemented by the decay of extinct 242Pu (half-life 0.375 million years) and 247Cm (half-life 16 million years), producing 238U and 235U respectively, this occurred to an almost negligible extent due to the shorter half-lives of these parents and their lower production than 236U and 244Pu, the parents of thorium: the 247Cm:235U ratio at the formation of the Solar System was (7.0±1.6)×10−5.[69]
Uranium is a naturally occurring element that can be found in low levels within all rock, soil, and water. Uranium is the 51st element in order of abundance in the Earth's crust. Uranium is also the highest-numbered element to be found naturally in significant quantities on Earth and is almost always found combined with other elements.[10] The decay of uranium, thorium, and potassium-40 in the Earth's mantle is thought to be the main source of heat[70][71] that keeps the Earth's outer core in the liquid state and drives mantle convection, which in turn drives plate tectonics.
Uranium's average concentration in the Earth's crust is (depending on the reference) 2 to 4 parts per million,[9][23] or about 40 times as abundant as silver.[15] The Earth's crust from the surface to 25 km (15 mi) down is calculated to contain 1017 kg (2×1017 lb) of uranium while the oceans may contain 1013 kg (2×1013 lb).[9] The concentration of uranium in soil ranges from 0.7 to 11 parts per million (up to 15 parts per million in farmland soil due to use of phosphate fertilizers),[72] and its concentration in sea water is 3 parts per billion.[23]
Uranium is more plentiful than antimony, tin, cadmium, mercury, or silver, and it is about as abundant as arsenic or molybdenum.[10][23] Uranium is found in hundreds of minerals, including uraninite (the most common uranium ore), carnotite, autunite, uranophane, torbernite, and coffinite.[10] Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as phosphate rock deposits, and minerals such as lignite, and monazite sands in uranium-rich ores[10] (it is recovered commercially from sources with as little as 0.1% uranium[15]).
Some bacteria, such as Shewanella putrefaciens, Geobacter metallireducens and some strains of Burkholderia fungorum, use uranium for their growth and convert U(VI) to U(IV).[73][74] Recent research suggests that this pathway includes reduction of the soluble U(VI) via an intermediate U(V) pentavalent state.[75][76] Other organisms, such as the lichen Trapelia involuta or microorganisms such as the bacterium Citrobacter, can absorb concentrations of uranium that are up to 300 times the level of their environment.[77] Citrobacter species absorb uranyl ions when given glycerol phosphate (or other similar organic phosphates). After one day, one gram of bacteria can encrust themselves with nine grams of uranyl phosphate crystals; this creates the possibility that these organisms could be used in bioremediation to decontaminate uranium-polluted water.[31][78] The proteobacterium Geobacter has also been shown to bioremediate uranium in ground water.[79] The mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices increases uranium content in the roots of its symbiotic plant.[80]
In nature, uranium(VI) forms highly soluble carbonate complexes at alkaline pH. This leads to an increase in mobility and availability of uranium to groundwater and soil from nuclear wastes which leads to health hazards. However, it is difficult to precipitate uranium as phosphate in the presence of excess carbonate at alkaline pH. A Sphingomonas sp. strain BSAR-1 has been found to express a high activity alkaline phosphatase (PhoK) that has been applied for bioprecipitation of uranium as uranyl phosphate species from alkaline solutions. The precipitation ability was enhanced by overexpressing PhoK protein in E. coli.[81]
Plants absorb some uranium from soil. Dry weight concentrations of uranium in plants range from 5 to 60 parts per billion, and ash from burnt wood can have concentrations up to 4 parts per million.[31] Dry weight concentrations of uranium in food plants are typically lower with one to two micrograms per day ingested through the food people eat.[31]
Production and mining Main article: Uranium mining Worldwide production of uranium in 2021 amounted to 48,332 tonnes, of which 21,819 t (45%) was mined in Kazakhstan. Other important urmom mining countries are Namibia (5,753 t), Canada (4,693 t), Australia (4,192 t), Uzbekistan (3,500 t), and Russia (2,635 t).[82]
Uranium ore is mined in several ways: by open pit, underground, in-situ leaching, and borehole mining (see uranium mining).[7] Low-grade uranium ore mined typically contains 0.01 to 0.25% uranium oxides. Extensive measures must be employed to extract the metal from its ore.[83] High-grade ores found in Athabasca Basin deposits in Saskatchewan, Canada can contain up to 23% uranium oxides on average.[84] Uranium ore is crushed and rendered into a fine powder and then leached with either an acid or alkali. The leachate is subjected to one of several sequences of precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The resulting mixture, called yellowcake, contains at least 75% uranium oxides U3O8. Yellowcake is then calcined to remove impurities from the milling process before refining and conversion.[85]
Commercial-grade uranium can be produced through the reduction of uranium halides with alkali or alkaline earth metals.[10] Uranium metal can also be prepared through electrolysis of KUF 5 or UF 4, dissolved in molten calcium chloride (CaCl 2) and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution.[10] Very pure uranium is produced through the thermal decomposition of uranium halides on a hot filament.[10]
It is estimated that 6.1 million tonnes of uranium exists in ore reserves that are economically viable at US$130 per kg of uranium,[87] while 35 million tonnes are classed as mineral resources (reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction).[88]
Australia has 28% of the world's known uranium ore reserves[87] and the world's largest single uranium deposit is located at the Olympic Dam Mine in South Australia.[89] There is a significant reserve of uranium in Bakouma, a sub-prefecture in the prefecture of Mbomou in the Central African Republic.[90]
Some uranium also originates from dismantled nuclear weapons.[91] For example, in 1993–2013 Russia supplied the United States with 15,000 tonnes of low-enriched uranium within the Megatons to Megawatts Program.[92]
An additional 4.6 billion tonnes of uranium are estimated to be dissolved in sea water (Japanese scientists in the 1980s showed that extraction of uranium from sea water using ion exchangers was technically feasible).[93][94] There have been experiments to extract uranium from sea water,[95] but the yield has been low due to the carbonate present in the water. In 2012, ORNL researchers announced the successful development of a new absorbent material dubbed HiCap which performs surface retention of solid or gas molecules, atoms or ions and also effectively removes toxic metals from water, according to results verified by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.[96][97]
In 2005, ten countries accounted for the majority of the world's concentrated uranium oxides: Canada (27.9%), Australia (22.8%), Kazakhstan (10.5%), Russia (8.0%), Namibia (7.5%), Niger (7.4%), Uzbekistan (5.5%), the United States (2.5%), Argentina (2.1%) and Ukraine (1.9%).[99] In 2008 Kazakhstan was forecast to increase production and become the world's largest supplier of uranium by 2009.[100][101] The prediction came true, and Kazakhstan does dominate the world's uranium market since 2010. In 2021, its share was 45.1%, followed by Namibia (11.9%), Canada (9.7%), Australia (8.7%), Uzbekistan (7.2%), Niger (4.7%), Russia (5.5%), China (3.9%), India (1.3%), Ukraine (0.9%), and South Africa (0.8%), with a world total production of 48,332 tonnes.[82] Most of uranium was produced not by conventional underground mining of ores (29% of production), but by in situ leaching (66%).[82][102]
In the late 1960s, UN geologists also discovered major uranium deposits and other rare mineral reserves in Somalia. The find was the largest of its kind, with industry experts estimating the deposits at over 25% of the world's then known uranium reserves of 800,000 tons.[103]
The ultimate available supply is believed to be sufficient for at least the next 85 years,[88] although some studies indicate underinvestment in the late twentieth century may produce supply problems in the 21st century.[104] Uranium deposits seem to be log-normal distributed. There is a 300-fold increase in the amount of uranium recoverable for each tenfold decrease in ore grade.[105] In other words, there is little high grade ore and proportionately much more low grade ore available.
Calcined uranium yellowcake, as produced in many large mills, contains a distribution of uranium oxidation species in various forms ranging from most oxidized to least oxidized. Particles with short residence times in a calciner will generally be less oxidized than those with long retention times or particles recovered in the stack scrubber. Uranium content is usually referenced to U 3O 8, which dates to the days of the Manhattan Project when U 3O 8 was used as an analytical chemistry reporting standard.[106]
Phase relationships in the uranium-oxygen system are complex. The most important oxidation states of uranium are uranium(IV) and uranium(VI), and their two corresponding oxides are, respectively, uranium dioxide (UO 2) and uranium trioxide (UO 3).[107] Other uranium oxides such as uranium monoxide (UO), diuranium pentoxide (U 2O 5), and uranium peroxide (UO 4·2H 2O) also exist.
The most common forms of uranium oxide are triuranium octoxide (U 3O 8) and UO 2.[108] Both oxide forms are solids that have low solubility in water and are relatively stable over a wide range of environmental conditions. Triuranium octoxide is (depending on conditions) the most stable compound of uranium and is the form most commonly found in nature. Uranium dioxide is the form in which uranium is most commonly used as a nuclear reactor fuel.[108] At ambient temperatures, UO 2 will gradually convert to U 3O 8. Because of their stability, uranium oxides are generally considered the preferred chemical form for storage or disposal.[108]
Salts of many oxidation states of uranium are water-soluble and may be studied in aqueous solutions. The most common ionic forms are U3+ (brown-red), U4+ (green), UO+ 2 (unstable), and UO2+ 2 (yellow), for U(III), U(IV), U(V), and U(VI), respectively.[109] A few solid and semi-metallic compounds such as UO and US exist for the formal oxidation state uranium(II), but no simple ions are known to exist in solution for that state. Ions of U3+ liberate hydrogen from water and are therefore considered to be highly unstable. The UO2+ 2 ion represents the uranium(VI) state and is known to form compounds such as uranyl carbonate, uranyl chloride and uranyl sulfate. UO2+ 2 also forms complexes with various organic chelating agents, the most commonly encountered of which is uranyl acetate.[109]
Unlike the uranyl salts of uranium and polyatomic ion uranium-oxide cationic forms, the uranates, salts containing a polyatomic uranium-oxide anion, are generally not water-soluble.
Carbonates The interactions of carbonate anions with uranium(VI) cause the Pourbaix diagram to change greatly when the medium is changed from water to a carbonate containing solution. While the vast majority of carbonates are insoluble in water (students are often taught that all carbonates other than those of alkali metals are insoluble in water), uranium carbonates are often soluble in water. This is because a U(VI) cation is able to bind two terminal oxides and three or more carbonates to form anionic complexes.
Effects of pH The uranium fraction diagrams in the presence of carbonate illustrate this further: when the pH of a uranium(VI) solution increases, the uranium is converted to a hydrated uranium oxide hydroxide and at high pHs it becomes an anionic hydroxide complex.
When carbonate is added, uranium is converted to a series of carbonate complexes if the pH is increased. One effect of these reactions is increased solubility of uranium in the pH range 6 to 8, a fact that has a direct bearing on the long term stability of spent uranium dioxide nuclear fuels.
Hydrides, carbides and nitrides Uranium metal heated to 250 to 300 °C (482 to 572 °F) reacts with hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Even higher temperatures will reversibly remove the hydrogen. This property makes uranium hydrides convenient starting materials to create reactive uranium powder along with various uranium carbide, nitride, and halide compounds.[111] Two crystal modifications of uranium hydride exist: an α form that is obtained at low temperatures and a β form that is created when the formation temperature is above 250 °C.[111]
Uranium carbides and uranium nitrides are both relatively inert semimetallic compounds that are minimally soluble in acids, react with water, and can ignite in air to form U 3O 8.[111] Carbides of uranium include uranium monocarbide (UC), uranium dicarbide (UC 2), and diuranium tricarbide (U 2C 3). Both UC and UC 2 are formed by adding carbon to molten uranium or by exposing the metal to carbon monoxide at high temperatures. Stable below 1800 °C, U 2C 3 is prepared by subjecting a heated mixture of UC and UC 2 to mechanical stress.[112] Uranium nitrides obtained by direct exposure of the metal to nitrogen include uranium mononitride (UN), uranium dinitride (UN 2), and diuranium trinitride (U 2N 3).[112]
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2023.03.30 06:35 ElementalEvils The speed in which the future changes terrifies me, and I can't find any reassurance.

I've recently been getting that existential despair from AI progress news way more often than you've felt genuinely excited for the possibilities it opens up.
One of my strongest attributes as a creative professional and workload manager is the sheer amount of different tasks I understand, can structure into a larger delivery and even execute at a commercial level, and while I've been told that's valuable in itself considering projections of AI in the workplace, often times I find myself struggling to place myself in that future, to conceptualize just what my work will look like in a couple years. That same struggle makes me feel like I'm trying to catch up to a train that doesn't stop, on foot, with full knowledge that if I don't manage to do it, that dream of rising above the conditions of my upbringing and forging a life of abundance for me, my peers and family are just done, and I'll just have to settle for average. To me, that feels like defeat.
Back in the middle ages, if you looked at a stable boy and took a stab at predicting what the next 20 years of his life would be like, there was a decent chance you'd nail it. Nowadays, I've found myself having to remake and remaster my goals, plans and aspirations way more often than it is remotely comfortable. Reassessing such things is already not the easiest thing in the world, couple that with my tendency to second guess myself when my confidence is low and my current state of genuine workplace burnout and you might get the picture of why Ive developed a tendency for escapism, why my sleep (or lack thereof) is shit and why so, so fucking often I find myself wishing for God to hit pause, for things to just STOP so I can breathe, put myself back together and resume when I'm back on my feet. I don't think I'm alone in this, and the reassurance I seek is one I wish I could give to others, but right now I'm abusing substances (caffeine, THC, Ritalin) just to get through the week and my clinical depression has been threatening to return, so positivity and determination are in short supply. I just wish someone could tell me it'll be okay and how.
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2023.03.30 06:34 HugeWorth6029 My stepfather destroyed the whole relationship with me, my mom and brother and now is asking for forgiveness.

First I want to appologise for my bad writing skills, I never wrote something like that before but I really need to get this off my chest.
So my (m16) stepfather just destroyed the beautifull 3 years relationship with us by cheating on my mom with a employee of his company. We built a whole new life together, I dont even know why he would ruin everythinglike that... We were all just so happy... well, at least me, my mom and brother I guess. Me and stepfather were very close to each other, we talked a lot, had a lot of fun together and even played video games together. I even liked him more than my own dad. This whole thing broke my moms heart in a million pieces, she did everything for him. When she found out he cheated on her, she was completely devastated, a mix of rage and sadness. And she was crying, sobbing as I was just standing there... Watching this whole thing knowing that I couldnt do anything about it. Eventually she lost her head even and started trowing and breaking stuff furiously like a psychotic person. It took me a few seconds so my brain could tell reather if that was actually happening or not, cuz this couldnt be true, I thought. And unfortunately, it was, and I was the one that had to hold her so she wouldnt hurt anyone or even herself while i tried to calm her down. I've never seen her act like that, shes not the type of person that would do this. It was unreal, I was so confused, lost, scared, desperate... Seeing her like this just didnt feel real at all... lt just felt wrong... As I was trying to calm her down I eventually managed to do so, she calmed down and came back to normal, still crying a lot. She suffered from a really horrorible depression in the past and im afraid that it can come back even worse, since she still has anxiety issues. We had to move out to start a new life from 0, so we (me, brother and mom) packed our stuff up and the housekeeper let us stay in her house temporarily thankfully.
Next day (today), at 23:40 my stepfather sent me an appology text...
I cant just forgive him you know... I feel just as betrayed as my mother does, he ruined our lives like if it was nothing. I just left him on seen but I may not even reply to his message at all, I guess...?
So thats it... Thanks for reading and feel free to ask/tell me anything.
submitted by HugeWorth6029 to offmychest [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:33 NakedMuffin4403 "My philosophy is that if I don't do it, someone else will " - George Soros (Hedging against AI)

Hey guys I'm not really sure if this is the right sub-reddit to be asking questions of this nature on, but I really wanted some contemporary Islamic insight that I don't think I can get elsewhere.
I am a CS major and am currently studying/researching AI and its implications on humanity extensively, and its very clear that in our lifetimes we will see a significant number of jobs evaporate. Some big-names in tech scene have made some pretty audacious predictions like "The marginal cost of human-capital is going to zero". I think this is inevitable, but its going to take a while. I am here to talk about what'll be happening during these next 3 decades.
Being in this industry, it's almost as if its a race to create a startup, own equity, and get acquired by a tech giant within an extended time frame before its too late. Obviously I am oversimplifying this but its the best way to hedge against the inevitable: AI is going to serve as this incredible tool to increase productivity- but it will simultaneously reduce both the demand and the value of knowledge work.
I'll elaborate on this. Lets take software developers for instance. AI is going to make your average dev far more productive, but this in turn will reduce the demand for the employer in question to employ more devs as all goals are being met. It will also reduce the value of knowledge work by making it so you no longer need 10 years of software engineering experience to create / work on anything meaningful, but rather a year of prompt engineering (learning how to communicate with these AI models effectively) and a CS 101 course.
This painful reality is just as true for accountants, engineers and really all knowledge work. It's ironic as blue collar jobs such as retail were expected to be the first to face automation.
Now my question is:
From an Islamic lens, is it ethical / permissible to engage in these developments? I have no aspirations in working some dead-end job at some big software firm, only to be rendered less valuable as I approach retirement (if not far earlier). My aspirations are to do something far more entrepreneurial. To create a product/service that utilizes AI to increase the value created for users/clients.
The thing is, there is a high probability that whatever I do is going to negatively impact at least *some* subset of people, whether it be reducing the economical value of their work, or even taking work away from them.
When I try to steel-man my thought process, I like to consider the fact that If I don't do it, its happening anyways, and If I do, at least (assuming I am successful) I can re-allocate some of the capital the market rewards me for some philanthropic cause that is in line with my world view.
We are living in a time similar to that of the most recent industrial revolution. Jobs were lost last time, many more were created. I don't know if the same will be true for the AI revolution.
My indefinitely optimistic intuition tells me that there is still hope of prosperity - but only really for those that are very conformable with adapting to change- and doing it FAST.
submitted by NakedMuffin4403 to islam [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:28 imseanlewin [Wanted] Rare Pop Vinyl - incl. Taylor Swift, Ariana Grande, Halsey, Lana Del Rey, Melanie Martinez, etc.

Hi! I'm hunting for a bunch of pop vinyl for my collection to fill in some gaps, and I wanted to check here before I looked on resale sites. Please PM me if you have anything and are willing to sell! Here is the list as of now (in alphabetical order):
Allie X
Aly & AJ
Ariana Grande
Billie Eilish
Camila Cabello
Charli XCX
Conan Gray
Doja Cat
Dua Lipa
Gracie Abrams
Janelle Monáe
Jess Glynne
Kacey Musgraves
Katy Perry
Kelsea Ballerini
Kim Petras
Lady Gaga
Lana Del Rey
Melanie Martinez
Miley Cyrus
Rina Sawayama
Sabrina Carpenter
Tate McRae
Taylor Swift
submitted by imseanlewin to VinylCollectors [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:27 Conscious_Pattern597 BEWARE!!!! ROVER ALLOWS SITTERS TO LEAVE DOGS ALONE FOR 6-7 HOURS

I just want to inform people that Rover allows House Sitters to leave dogs alone for over 7 hours without any repercussions. In fact, they consider this an acceptable service/practice. I have cameras in front of my house that notified me when the sitter (KATHLEEN S. FEDERAL WAY, WA) came and went and she would leave my dog alone for over 6 hours one day and 7 hours during the next day. My dog is over 9 years old and has to go to the bathroom every 2 hours as specified on his Care Instructions. I also stated that he could only be left alone for 1-4 hours at a time since I do not work so I'm always with him, plus he has separation anxiety. She was compensated generously, almost $400 yet she provided the minimum effort, which to me is unacceptable and quite frankly a scam for the service she gave.
I believe its completely negligent of Rover and Kathleen to condone this type of behavior and leave a dog alone for over 6-7 hours but clearly they believe its okay. I also think everyone has the right to know that this isn't a one time occurrence but it shows a pattern of behavior. Rover Support said I can leave a review, which I did, but then the website hides the 1 star I gave and make it seem like she has a perfect score. I simply want to warn people that there are sitters out there that will leave your dogs alone for several hours without a bathroom break, and will leave them to have accidents all over the house.
Anyways, I just wanted to warn people that this negligent behavior is going on and that Rover is perfectly okay with it. I believe that dog owners have the right to know what type of ethics they have and the behaviors they condone despite showing them proof of negligence.
I've attached screenshots of the time stamps of when she left, verification of purchase, my dog's specific care instructions, the account dealt with, the Rover Support emails that were exchanged, as well as how my review shows up on her account.
Please don't use Rover. As dog owners we have to advocate for the safety of our pets since they cannot communicate what is going on. I advise to have nanny cams with any dog sitters and cameras outside your house to see how much time your dog is neglected as it was with my case.
submitted by Conscious_Pattern597 to RoverPetSitting [link] [comments]